Beginner Medical English

A Reference Handbook for Mongolian Students and Healthcare Professionals (DOWNLOAD)

Medical Terminology

ONLINE LESSONS for Healthcare Professionals in Mongolia

Human Anatomy and Physiology

by Dr. Bruce Forciea, 2012 (DOWNLOAD)

Cells: Molecules and Mechanisms

University Cell and Molecular Biology textbook (DOWNLOAD)

Monday, October 28, 2013

In Mongolia, centre helps children with disabilities learn new skills

Originally posted on on May 28, 2013
By Sabine Dolan

UNICEF correspondent Sabine Dolan reports on a mother in Mongolia who is taking care of a daughter with learning disabilities.

Like all children, those with disabilities have many abilities, but are often excluded from society by discrimination and lack of support, leaving them among the most invisible and vulnerable children in the world.

UNICEF launches its flagship report The State of the World’s Children 2013: Children with Disabilities on 30 May 2013. The report brings global attention to the urgent needs of a largely invisible population.

In northern Mongolia, a centre supporting children with disabilities has proven a lifeline for 13-year-old Uyanga.

Tsagaannuur, Khuvsgul province, Mongolia, 28 May 2013 – Tumenjargal is a kindergarten teacher in northern Mongolia. She’s also a wife and mother of four. The family live in the small village of Tsagaannuur, about an hour from the Russian border.

Tumenjargal’s 13-year-old daughter Uyanga enjoys the same things as a lot of girls her age. “She really loves music and dancing,” Tumenjargal tells us. “She could watch television for hours, listening to music, especially traditional music, and watching how people dance.”

Two days after she was born, Uyanga was diagnosed with brain damage, which left her with permanent learning disabilities. Uyanga has difficulty speaking, and her vision is impaired. She learned to walk when she was 3 years old. Her parents tell us she can usually walk alone in a familiar environment. Otherwise, she is afraid.

Challenges for Uyanga

In Uyanga’s village, there are few options for children with disabilities. Uyanga attended kindergarten from the age of 4 until she was 9. She then went to her brother’s school, but was soon faced with stigma and discrimination.

Uyanga, 13, (left) with her mother, Tumenjargal, outside their home in Tsagaannuur. Two days after she was born, Uyanga was diagnosed with brain damage, which has left her with permanent learning disabilities. © UNICEF Mongolia/2012/Dolan

“When she was 9, she started attending school with her brother, but children made fun of her,” Tumenjargal tells us. “It was hard for her brother, too, so she stopped going. It was difficult. There were some challenges.”

Children with disabilities are less likely to receive an education. They’re also less likely to engage with peers or have an opportunity to participate in their community. They are often neglected and isolated.

Inclusive education

Today, Uyanga attends a centre that helps children with disabilities learn new skills in a supportive and inclusive environment. UNICEF supports this centre, which has become a lifeline for Uyanga – who now enjoys learning and has made friends. UNICEF has also trained the teachers here to promote child participation and inclusive education. Thanks to this inclusive model, 40 children with disabilities are now enrolled in the centre as well as in the main school.

“She doesn’t yet know how to write, but she is exercising how to hold her pen,” Tumenjargal explains to us. “Also, she practises how to pronounce sounds and consonants. After school, she comes home and she tries to practise in front of the mirror.”

“Please help and try to understand”

Children with disabilities face many barriers; they encounter social exclusion, as do their families. Yet, in a supportive community, families can help foster a more inclusive and enriching environment.

“My message to parents of children with disabilities and people all over the world is this: Please help and try to understand children with disabilities,” Tumenjargal says.

UNICEF wants to raise awareness about the rights of all children. We want to support more centres for children like Uyanga so they can enjoy the same opportunities as others.

Definition List:
  • disability: a physical or mental condition that means you cannot use a part of your body completely or easily, or that you cannot learn easily
  • to exclude: to prevent somebody/something from entering a place or taking part in something
  • discrimination: treating somebody or a particular group in society less fairly than others
  • invisible: that cannot be seen
  • vulnerable: weak and easily hurt physically or emotionally
  • flagship: the most important product, service, building, etc. that an organization owns or produces
  • lifeline: something that is very important for somebody and that they depend on
  • to diagnose: to say exactly what an illness or the cause of a problem is
  • permanent: lasting for a long time or for all time in the future; existing all the time
  • impaired: damaged or not functioning normally
  • options: things that you can choose to have or do; the freedom to choose what you do
  • stigma: feelings of disapproval that people have about particular illnesses or ways of behaving
  • to engage: to succeed in attracting and keeping somebody's attention and interest
  • inclusive: including a wide range of people, things, ideas, etc
  • barriers: a problem, rule or situation that prevents somebody from doing something, or that makes something impossible
  • to encounter: to meet somebody, or discover or experience something, especially somebody/something new, unusual or unexpected
  • exclusion: a person or thing that is not included in something
  • to foster: to encourage something to develop
  • enriching: to improve the quality of something, often by adding something to it
Pronunciation MP3:
= disability
= exclude
= invisible
= vulnerable
= flagship
= lifeline
= diagnose
= permanent
= impaired
= option
= stigma
= engage
= inclusive
= barrier
= encounter
= exclusion
= foster
= enrich

Sunday, October 20, 2013

An Airway Created with a 3D Printer Saved This Baby’s Life

Originally posted on on May 23, 2013
By Matt Peckham

If you think 3D printing’s overhyped with all this talk of plastic guns and strange, spider-like houses, you clearly haven’t seen this: a tiny airway splint created using a 3D printer that saved a three-month-old’s life.

Doctors at C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital in Ann Arbor, Michigan paired their medical know-how with the latest 3D printing technology to generate a custom, synthetic bio-part that ultimately saved a child who’d lost the ability to breathe on his own.

Kaiba Gionfriddo, who lives with his parents in Youngstown, Ohio, had a rare birth defect known as tracheobronchomalacia: just one in 2,200 are born with it. In babies with the condition, the airway walls are so weak they frequently collapse when breathing or coughing, shutting down the airway. Parents (and doctors) often miss the condition until the child suddenly stops breathing, which is how, terrifyingly, Kaiba’s parents discovered while eating at a restaurant that their six-week-old baby had it.

“He turned blue and stopped breathing on us,” Kaiba’s mother April Gionfriddo told the Associated Press, at which point Kaiba’s father, Bryan, had to perform CPR to revive him. But the breathing problems continued, and Kaiba wound up on a breathing machine at Akron Children’s Hospital in Ohio; doctors there told Kaiba’s mother his chances of leaving the hospital alive were slim.

So when one of those Akron doctors, Marc Nelson, mentioned that researchers in Michigan were experimenting with artificial airway splints, Kaiba’s parents wasted no time getting in touch with the hospital and doctors Glenn Green, M.D. and Scott Hollister, Ph.D.

Writing of the situation on the Univeristy of Michigan’s health blog, Green notes that the timing was just right — he and Hollister had “been working on a type of device that would be perfect to help splint little Kaiba’s airway, keeping it clear for air to continually flow to the lungs.” According to Green:
Scott and I had been exploring creating implants using a type of biodegradable polyester called polycaprolactone for a while, but it had never been used in this way before. Because of the urgency of Kaiba’s life threatening condition, though, we were able to get emergency clearance from the Food and Drug Administration to create a tracheal splint for him, using the material.
Using high-res imagery from a CT scan of Kaiba’s afflicted airway, Green and Hollister were able to create a custom splint specifically tailored to fit Kaiba, then print it out on a 3D printer. The operation to install the tiny tube-like splint took place on Feb. 9, 2012, where Green says “[the] splint was sewn around Kaiba’s airway to expand the airway and give it a skeleton to help it grow properly and with greater strength,” adding that the splint is biodegradable — designed to be reabsorbed by Kaiba’s body over the course of three years.

“As soon as the splint was put in, the lungs started going up and down for the first time and we knew he was going to be OK,” wrote Green. Three weeks following the operation, Kaiba came off ventilator support and Green reports he hasn’t had breathing trouble since.

Just to underline the point here, that 3D printing technology, at least as far as medical research goes, is anything but overhyped, here’s Green again:
The image-based design and 3-D biomaterial printing process we used for Kaiba can be adapted to build and reconstruct a number of tissue structures. We’ve used the process to build and test patient-specific ear and nose structures. Scott has also used the method with other collaborators to rebuild bone structures in pre-clinical models.

Definition List:
  • overhype: to over advertise something a lot and exaggerate its good qualities too much
  • to pair: to put people or things into groups of two
  • to collapse: it falls in and becomes flat and empty
  • biodegradable: a substance or chemical that can be changed to a harmless natural state by the action of bacteria, and will therefore not damage the environment
  • high-res: = high resolution: showing a lot of clear sharp detail
  • afflicted: to affect somebody/something in an unpleasant or harmful way
  • to tailor: to make or adapt something for a particular purpose, a particular person, etc
  • to underline: to emphasize or show that something is important or true
  • to adapt: to change something in order to make it suitable for a new use or situation
Pronunciation MP3:
= pair
= collapse
= biodegradable
= tailor
= adapt