Beginner Medical English

A Reference Handbook for Mongolian Students and Healthcare Professionals (DOWNLOAD)

Medical Terminology

ONLINE LESSONS for Healthcare Professionals in Mongolia

Human Anatomy and Physiology

by Dr. Bruce Forciea, 2012 (DOWNLOAD)

Cells: Molecules and Mechanisms

University Cell and Molecular Biology textbook (DOWNLOAD)

Sunday, July 28, 2013

World Hepatitis Day

World Hepatitis Day is today, July 28th. It aims to raise global awareness of hepatitis B and hepatitis C and to encourage prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Approximately 1 in 12 people worldwide are living with either hepatitis B or C.

Take part in World Hepatitis Day by checking out a few online lessons about hepatitis B and hepatitis C:

Saturday, July 27, 2013

World Hepatitis Day tomorrow

July 28th is World Hepatitis Day so here are a few links for posters you can edit and download. Then you can print them and post in your community. There are 10 posters and they can be found at World Hepatitis Posters. Here are a few of them:

Monday, July 22, 2013

Evolving Tuberculosis Bacteria are Beating Old Treatments

Originally post on, July 19, 20013

Children with tuberculosis sleep outside at Springfield House Open Air School in London in 1932. Like sanatoriums, these schools offered TB sufferers a place to receive the top treatment of the day: fresh air and sunshine.

You probably don't think about tuberculosis much. Why would you? The number of cases in the U.S. is at an all-time low.

But TB has returned with a vengeance in some parts of world, and there have been some troubling outbreaks here at home, too.

Many of the cases come with a deadly twist. They're resistant to standard drugs and can take years of painstaking treatment to bring under control.

Over the past few months, we've been chronicling the heavy toll TB takes on people, including serious side effects from medications, isolation from communities and the social stigma that often accompanies infection.

People who spend their time thinking about how to fight the disease want everyone to know more about the growing public health challenge. "TB is not at all treated with the diligence that it should be," Dr. Mel Spigelman, who leads the nonprofit TB Alliance, tells Shots. "If Angelina Jolie had TB instead of the BRCA1 mutation, it would probably get more attention."

That surely wasn't the case a hundred years ago. "TB was the No. 1 killer in the U.S.," Spigelman tells Shots.

In fact, TB was such a problem that overcoming it helped lay the groundwork for modern medicine. The disease also inspired some of the great plays, books and operas of the 19th century. Think Victor Hugo's epic novel Les Miserables and Giacomo Puccini's heart-wrenching masterpiece La Boheme.

Some historians estimate that the so-called white plague caused about 25 percent of all deaths in Massachusetts and New York during the 19th century. TB wiped out nearly a quarter of Europe's population around the same time.

When the German scientist Robert Koch discovered the TB bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in 1882, he also figured out a way to identify the culprit for any infectious disease. Scientists still use Koch's postulates today when new pathogens emerge.

Kids receive treatment at a tuberculosis clinic in Friedrichstadt, Germany, circa 1925.

Sixty years after Koch's discovery, British doctors conducted what's thought to be the first large-scale, randomized drug trial to test the effectiveness of the antibiotic streptomycin against TB.

While scientists were searching for TB under the microscope, artists were busy expressing how it felt to live with what was euphemistically called "consumption."

"It was the fashion to suffer from the lungs; everybody was consumptive, poets especially," wrote Alexandre Dumas, author of The Three Musketeers, in his memoir. "It was good form to spit blood after each emotion that was at all sensational, and to die before the age of 30."

From the works of John Keats and Lord Byron to Charles Dickens and Fyodor Dostoevsky, references to TB pervade art and literature in the 19th and early 20th centuries. "George Orwell's Animal Farm is probably based on his experience living in a sanatorium," Spigelman says.

Although TB isn't as contagious as the flu or chickenpox, the bacteria spread through sneezing and coughing. So by the early 19th century, governments had built large hospitals or sanatoriums across the U.S. and Europe to isolate patients and offer a place to provide the top treatment of the day: fresh air, sunlight and a good diet.

Sanatoriums' doors closed by the 1960s, as antibiotics wiped out infections and TB cases in the U.S. steadily declined.

Edvard Munch's The Sick Child depicts the moments before his sister died of tuberculosis in 1896.

Now the number of new U.S. cases each year — about 10,000 — is low compared with many other common diseases. But the known TB cases are just the "tip of the iceberg" when it comes to the total number of people infected, Spigelman says.

Only a small percentage of people who catch TB actually get sick. In the other cases, the bacteria take up long-term residency in the lungs and don't cause any harm — but these people still need to be treated, Spigelman says.

"With TB, there really is a mushrooming effect," he adds. And it can get expensive, quickly.

Just take a look at the high cost of a small TB outbreak in Sheboygan, Wis., where nine people have been diagnosed with drug-resistant infections. Stopping the outbreak is expected to cost nearly $5 million.

Word List:
  • sanitarium: a place like a hospital where patients who have a lasting illness or who are getting better after an illness are treated
  • painstaking: needing a lot of care, effort and attention to detail
  • stigma: feelings of disapproval that people have about particular illnesses or ways of behaving
  • diligence: careful and thorough work or effort
  • emerge: to start to exist; to appear or become known
  • contagious: they have a disease that can be spread to other people
  • mushrooming: to rapidly grow or increase in number
  • outbreak: the sudden start of something unpleasant, especially violence or a disease
Pronunciation MP3s:
= sanitarium
= painstaking
= stigma
= diligence
= emerge
= contagious
= mushroom
= outbreak

Monday, July 15, 2013

To Make Hearing Aids Affordable, Firm Turns On Bluetooth

Originally from National Public Radio on July 2, 2013
by John Ydstie

Sound World Solution's hearing device lets a user customize its settings
using a Bluetooth connection and a smartphone.

As many as 300 million people around the world need hearing aids. The vast majority of the 7 million people who get them annually are in the U.S. and Europe.

One big reason is cost. On average, a set of hearing aids rings up a tab of about $4,000. Most insurance policies don't cover them.

A company called Sound World Solutions is trying to do something about the limited reach of hearing aids by creating a high-quality hearing device that costs less than a tenth the normal price.

Stavros Basseas is showing me around his development lab and hearing clinic in a strip mall in suburban Chicago. Basseas began as an electrical engineer in the hearing aid industry, but working with patients directly in this small clinic helped him understand their needs more deeply.

"It was not just an engineering project anymore," he says. "It had a human face." Basseas says when people came to him for help he had a chance to talk to them about the effects of hearing loss, especially the social isolation most people experience.

But when they put on a new hearing device, Basseas says patients react right away. "Sometimes they cry, because it was like talking to their heart, because they know what is happening," he says.

Wayne Jagusch, one of Basseas' patients, knows the feeling. "It's terrible when you're with people and you can't understand what they're saying," he says. "You sit there and smile like an idiot and nod your head, and you don't know whether they're saying something good or bad."

Years ago, Basseas fitted Jagusch with top-quality hearing aids that cost thousands of dollars. He brought them in for adjustment on the day I visited. But Basseas also recently gave Jagusch a prototype of the $300 device the company has developed. Jagusch likes it.

"This is the best I've had so far, and I've gone through a bunch of different devices," Jagusch says. "I like the adjustability of it."

Besides cost, one of the big hurdles to the use of hearing aids is the number of visits required to get the devices adjusted properly. Sound World Solutions addresses that problem by making its device adjustable through a Bluetooth connection to a smartphone.

The app first gives the user a hearing test using an earpiece that looks like a small Bluetooth phone receiver. Then the app sets the device to compensate for your hearing loss. A user can also tweak the device manually.

Basseas demonstrates.

"So, I have on my ear the device, the CS10, and we are, at the same time, recording whatever I hear in my ear," he says. "And the device is connected with the smartphone, and I'm going to go through the sequence of customizing the device. If I need a little bit more clarity, I can increase the trebles, and so you can actually hear that the trebles are increased. Or if I like to listen to music and I like a little more bass, then I increase the bass."

The device also has presets that can be turned on and off without a smartphone.

Frank Lin, a professor of public health and an ear surgeon at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, says this kind of device provides a good alternative for the millions of adults in the U.S. who have mild to moderate hearing loss.

"You can get it mailed to you, you put it in your ear, you program it yourself with your Android phone, and it's going to be decent," Lin says. "Never as good as the gold standard, of course, but a whole lot better than nothing."

Lin's research shows the hearing loss is not just an irritant — it's a serious public health problem. That's because hearing loss increases the likelihood of declining physical, emotional and mental health.

"The price point they're talking about is something that makes it a much more affordable [device] — and more importantly, their approach toward it makes it a much more accessible device," Lin says. He's planning to use the Sound World Solutions device in his future research.

Lin says another problem with the current market for hearing aids is that the handful of companies that make them have a high-profit, low-volume strategy. That's partly driven by the fact that each company uses its own proprietary technology that costs lots of money to develop. Sound World Solutions has taken another route — it uses mostly inexpensive off-the-shelf Bluetooth technology for its device.

Word List:
  • strip mall: a line of shops/stores and restaurants beside a main road
  • isolation: the act of separating somebody/something; the state of being separate
  • hurdle: a problem or difficulty that must be solved or dealt with before you can achieve something
  • compensate: to provide something good to balance or reduce the bad effects of damage, loss, etc.
  • sequence: a set of events, actions, numbers, etc. which have a particular order and which lead to a particular result
  • clarity: the quality of sound
  • treble: the high tones or part in music or a sound system
  • bass: the low tones or part in music or a sound system
  • gold standard: "the best"
  • irritant: something that makes you annoyed or causes trouble
  • proprietary: made and sold by a particular company and protected
Pronunciation MP3s:
= isolation
= hurdle
= compensate
= sequence
= clarity
= treble
= irritant
= proprietary

Monday, July 8, 2013


Originally posted on on July 6, 2013

So, you have been diagnosed with tendonitis of the wrist, or fear you might develop it, and it is time to look at treatments. Preventative methods for tendonitis of the wrist are part of a comprehensive treatment program and should be exercised during and after recovery.

Tendonitis can be caused by repetitive or acute trauma or a combination of the two. Treatment for tendonitis is the same whether it developed as a repetitive stress injury or not.

Finding the Cause of Tendonitis

The first step in treating and preventing tendonitis of the wrist is understanding what caused it. Many general causes of repetitive stress injury can be contributing factors for tendonitis of the wrist. Performing repetitive finger and wrist motions or using vibrating equipment also heightens your risk of developing tendonitis in that area.

Use the method outlined in Things to Do if You’ve Been Diagnosed with a Repetitive Stress Injury to identify the tasks causing the pain. Using a Visual Analog Pain Scale will help pinpoint the major and minor causes.

Stopping the Stress

The next step in your treatment and prevention of tendonitis of the wrist is to stop performing those tasks or correct your body mechanics when you do. If it is working at a computer, set up an ergonomically sound computer work station. If it is another tool or setup follow sound ergonomic principles ensuring you keep a natural wrist position when working and take frequent breaks. If vibration is a factor use a vibration absorbing pad or glove or change the grip on the tool to one that better fits your hand.

Maintain a Healthy Wrist

The next step in treating and preventing tendonitis of the wrist is to use proper body mechanics in all wrist related activities. These Tips to Prevent Wrist Repetitive Stress Injury are a good basic guide to maintaining a healthy wrist.

Playing with different muscles than those you work with can also provide relief to an ailing wrist.

You also need to stay healthy and fit. Maintain a healthy weight and good cardiovascular health. Strong bodies are more resilient against the stressors that cause these conditions.

Home Treatment

Home treatment options for tendonitis include:
  • Icing the wrist to reduce inflammation and increase blood flow
  • Using over the counter, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to decrease the swelling and manage pain (Warning: only use pain medication at times of rest to reduce the chance of further injury)
  • Exercise to strengthen the injured area once symptoms have been reduced
Professional Treatment

When preventative and home treatment measures are not enough your health care professional may recommend these treatments. Only follow these treatments when instructed to by a health care professional. Treatments include:
  • Icing the wrist to reduce inflammation and increase blood flow
  • Wearing wrist splints to immobilize the wrist and reduce repetitive trauma
  • Using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to decrease the swelling and manage pain
  • Ultrasound therapy to reduce swelling and fluid build up
  • Cortisone injection to treat the inflammation
  • Physical therapy and exercise to strengthen the injured area

Surgery is a last option for treatment of tendonitis in the wrist. Removal of soft tissue around the problem area can give the tendon more room to move without irritation. Surgery is also a viable option if an anatomical feature is causing the problem. If the tendon does not have a smooth spot to move over then surgery can smooth it out or realign the tendon.

Word List:
  • repetitive: repeated many times
  • vibrating: to move or make something move from side to side very quickly and with small movements
  • pinpoint: to be able to give the exact reason for something or to describe something exactly
  • ergonomic: designed to improve people's working conditions and to help them work more efficiently
  • ailing: ill/sick and not improving
  • resilient: able to feel better quickly after something unpleasant such as shock, injury, etc
  • splint: material or a device used to protect and prevent a body part from moving
  • viable: that can be done; that will be successful

Pronunciation List:
= tendonitis
= repetitive
= vibrate
= pinpoint
= ergonomic
= ailing
= resilient
= inflammation
= immobilize
= splint
= cortisone
= viable

Tuesday, July 2, 2013

10 Tips To Be A Successful Doctor

Originally posted at Medical Humour July 1, 2013

10 Tips To Be A Successful Doctor:

1- Read more : Every day there are new medical studies , new diseases , new drugs ... etc , if you want to be a successful doctor you should read more everyday.

2- Humility : Respect others , even if you are excellent people hate conceited physicians , also even if you are excellent young doctors may know what you don't know.

3- Money is not everything : You are a physician , It is not an ordinary job you are treating with humans.

4- Ambitious : Ambition has no limit and you should renew your ambition to renew your no limit and you should renew your success.

5- Details : Pay attention to details , you may diagnose a case with only one hidden word or sign.

6- Responsibility : Be responsible in every action you make as we said before it is not an ordinary job.

7- Communication skills : If you have time you can take a communication skills course , you should deliver good and bad news or advises for patients in a right manner.

8- Time management : You should manage your time between your work and your family and yourself , you are not a machine , Enjoy your life.

9- Be Patient : Don't hurry up , If you are good doctor you will be famous and you will success.

10- Marketing : You should search about new ways of medical marketing so people can find you.