Beginner Medical English

A Reference Handbook for Mongolian Students and Healthcare Professionals (DOWNLOAD)

Medical Terminology

ONLINE LESSONS for Healthcare Professionals in Mongolia

Human Anatomy and Physiology

by Dr. Bruce Forciea, 2012 (DOWNLOAD)

Cells: Molecules and Mechanisms

University Cell and Molecular Biology textbook (DOWNLOAD)

Thursday, February 28, 2013

Medical Waste: 90 More Don'ts For Your Doctor

Originally posted on NPR on Feb 21, 2013
by RICHARD KNOX
A CT scan shouldn't be ordered routinely for a kid with a minor head injury,
new advice to doctors says. iStockphoto.com

Doctors do stuff — tests, procedures, drug regimens and operations. It's what they're trained to do, what they're paid to do and often what they fear not doing.

So it's pretty significant that a broad array of medical specialty groups is issuing an expanding list of don'ts for physicians.

Don't induce labor or perform a cesarean section for a baby who's less than full-term unless there's a valid medical reason, say the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the American Academy of Family Physicians. (It can increase the risk of learning disabilities and respiratory problems.)

Don't automatically do a CT scan on a child with a minor head injury, warns the American Academy of Pediatrics. (Currently half of all such children get them, when simple observation is just as good and spares radiation risk.)

Don't try to normalize blood sugar in most diabetic patients over 65, exhorts the American Geriatrics Society. (It can lead to higher mortality rates.)

And on and on. The latest list totals 90 tests and procedures that are often unnecessary and potentially harmful, compiled by 17 specialty groups representing more than 350,000 doctors.

The list is the second chapter in a campaign called Choosing Wisely sponsored by the Foundation of the American Board of Internal Medicine. Last year the foundation warned against 45 tests, procedures and treatments that often do patients no good. That list was endorsed by nine medical specialty organizations.

The new don'ts bring the total to 135.


The idea is to curb unnecessary, wasteful and often harmful care, its sponsors say — not to ration care. As one foundation official pointed out last year, rationing is denial of care that patients need, while the Choosing Wisely campaign aims to reduce care that has no value.

The campaign aims to foster the notion, among patients as well as doctors, "that when it comes to health care, more is not necessarily better," Dr. Christine Cassel of the ABIM Foundation says in a statement abut the latest list, to be officially unveiled at a Washington media event Thursday.

The sponsors promise even more lists of don'ts later this year from a dozen more specialty groups, ranging from the American College of Surgeons to the American Headache Society.

Here are some other notable tests, traditions and procedures to skip:

Don't use feeding tubes in patients with advanced dementia. Simply assisting such patients to take food by mouth is better.

Don't perform EEGs (electroencephalography) on patients with recurrent headaches. It doesn't improve diagnosis or outcomes and simply increases costs.

Don't perform routine annual Pap tests in women between 30 and 65. Every three years is enough.

Don't hold back on providing hospice care to relieve pain and distress just because a seriously ill patient is getting treatment aimed at alleviating disease.

Don't leave an implantable defibrillator turned on if a patient with incurable disease, or his family decision-makers, have elected to forego resuscitation. Currently there are no formal policies on this issue, and implantable defibrillators often fire in the weeks preceding death, causing pain and distress to dying patients and their families.

Don't use cough and cold medicines in children under four suffering from respiratory illness. They offer little benefit, can have serious side effects and risk accidental overdose.

Don't do repeat bone scans for osteoporosis more often than every two years. Healthy women over 67 with normal bone mass can go up to 10 years without a repeat bone scan.

Don't prescribe benzodiazepines, such as Valium, or sedatives and sleep aids to older adults with insomnia, agitation or delirium. They can more than double the risk of motor vehicle accidents, falls, hip fractures and death.

Don't screen patients routinely for vitamin D deficiency. Over the counter supplements without laboratory testing is sufficient for most otherwise healthy patients.

Don't screen for cancer in healthy individuals using CT or PET scans. The likelihood of finding cancer is around 1 percent, and the scans are likely to identify harmless findings leading to more tests, biopsies or needless surgery.

Tuesday, February 19, 2013

TERM: hemorrhoids

Diagram demonstrating the anal anatomy of both
internal and external hemorrhoids
Hemorrhoids (US English) or haemorrhoids (UK), are veins in the anus which help with stool control. They become a problem when swollen or inflamed. Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless rectal bleeding. External hemorrhoids may produce few symptoms but can also cause a lot of pain and swelling in the area of the anus.

While the exact cause of hemorrhoids remains unknown, doctors feel that they are usually caused by untreated constipation but occasionally associated with chronic diarrhea.

Initial treatment hemorrhoids consists of changing the diet to decrease constipation like increasing fiber intake, drinking more fluids, NSAIDs to help with the pain, and rest. Sometimes surgery is needed for severe cases. Up to half of people may experience problems with hemorrhoids at some point in their life. Outcomes are usually good.


Word List:
  • inflamed: result of inflammation (pain, heat, red, swelling)
  • to swell: to become bigger or rounder
  • to present: if a patient presents with particular signs of an illness, they have those signs
  • constipation: unable to get rid of waste material from the bowels easily
  • chronic: lasting for a long time; difficult to cure or get rid of
  • diarrhea: an illness in which the solid waste from your body is like a liquid and you have to go to the toilet very often
  • intake: eating and drinking
  • NSAID: a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (as aspirin and ibuprofen)
  • outcome: the result or effect of an action or event
Pronunciation Practice:
= hemorrhoid [hem·or·rhoid]
= inflame [in·flame]
= internal [in·ter·nal]
= external [ex·ter·nal]
= rectum [rec·tum]
= constipation [con·sti·pa·tion]
= chronic [chron·ic]
= diarrhea [di·ar·rhea]
= NSAID

Reference:
Wikipedia - Hemorrhoid
MedTerm.com - definition of hemorrhoids

Monday, February 11, 2013

Happy Tsagaan Sar


To everyone,
I wish you all a
Happy Tsagaan Sar.
May the new year bring you and your family
much joy, happiness and prosperity.

Jim bagsh

Thursday, February 7, 2013

MT-3: Rules for Making Plural Suffixes

Quick Links to Chapter 3: Suffixes Lessons
Suffix Linking
Noun Suffixes
More Noun Suffixes
Adjective Suffixes
Rules for Making Plural Suffixes

3: SUFFIXES:
Rules for Making Plural Suffixes

Because we use many words that are based on the Greek or Latin, we follow the rules of these languages in making the plural form of the words. But remember that there are also many commonly used medical terms that follow English rules for making them plural (for example adding -s or -es). Here is a table to help you learn.

RULE
Examples
singularpluralsingularplural
-akeep the “a” and add “e”pleurapleurae
-axdrop the “x” and add “ces”thoraxthoraces
-endrop the “en” and add “ina”lumenlumina
-isdrop the “is” and add “es”diagnosisdiagnoses
-ixdrop the “ix” and add “ices”appendixappendices
-exdrop the “ex” and add “ices”apexapices
-makeep the “ma” and add “ta”carcinomacarcinomata
-ondrop the “on” and add “a”ganglionganglia
-umdrop the “um” and add “a”bacteriumbacteria
-usdrop the “us” and add “i”bronchusbronchi
-ydrop the “y” and add “ies”deformitydeformities

But according to some dictionaries, since the words are now part of the English language, many can also use the English method of making plurals by adding -s or -es.


REVIEW

New Words
  • pleura = цээжний гялтан {плевры}
  • thorax = хэнхэрцэг {грудной}
  • lumen = люмен
  • diagnosis = оношилгоо {диагностики}
  • appendix = мухар олгой {добавление}
  • apex = дээд хэсэг {вершина}
  • carcinoma = өмөн үү, хорт хавдар {карцинома}
  • ganglion = мэдрэлийн эс {нервный узел}
  • bacterium = бактери, микроб, нян {бактерии}
  • bronchus = мөгөөрсөн хоолой {бронхов}
  • deformity = зэрэмдэг, гажиг {искривления}
Pronunciation Practice:
= pleura [pleu·ra]
= pleurae [pleu·rae]
= thorax [tho·rax]
= thoraces [tho·ra·ces]
= lumen [lu·men]
= lumina [lu·mi·na]
= diagnosis [di·ag·no·sis]
= diagnoses [di·ag·no·ses]
= appendix [ap·pen·dix]
= appendices [ap·pen·di·ces]
= apex [a·pex]
= apices [a·pi·ces]
= carcinoma [car·ci·no·ma]
= carcinomata [car·ci·no·ma·ta]
= ganglion [gan·gli·on]
= ganglia [gan·gli·a]
= bacterium [bac·te·ri·um]
= bacteria [bac·te·ri·a]
= bronchus [bron·chus]
= bronchi [bron·chi]
= deformity [de·for·mi·ty]


with exercises

Previous Lesson
Chapter 3: Suffixes
Adjective Suffixes
Next Lesson
Chapter 4: Prefixes
COMING SOON

MT-3: Adjective Suffixes

Quick Links to Chapter 3: Suffixes Lessons
Suffix Linking
Noun Suffixes
More Noun Suffixes
Adjective Suffixes
Rules for Making Plural Suffixes

3: SUFFIXES:
Adjective Suffixes

-ac, -iac = pertaining to

     cardiac: pertaining to the heart

-al = pertaining to

     peritoneal: pertaining to the smooth transparent membrane that lines the cavity of the abdomen and encloses the abdominal and pelvic organs = {перитонеального}
          peritoneum: (noun) = {брюшины}
          peritone/o: peritoneum
     inguinal: of, relating to, or situated in the region of the groin or in either of the lowest lateral regions of the abdomen = цавины
          inguin/o: groin = цавь, салтаа {паха}
          pleural: pertaining to the pleura
          pleur/o: pleura = цээжний гялтан, хальс {плевры}

-ar = pertaining to

     tonsillar: pertaining to the tonsils = бүйлсэн булчирхайн
          tonsill/o: tonsils = бүйлсэн булчирхай {миндалина}

-ary = pertaining to

     pulmonary: pertaining to the lungs = уушгины {легочный}
          pulmon/o: lungs = уушги {легочное}
     axillary: pertaining to the axilla = суганы хонхорын {подмышечный}
          axill/o: axilla (armpit) = суганы хонхорхой {подмышечная впадина}
          armpit = суга {одноименный}

-eal = pertaining to

     laryngeal: pertaining to the larynx = төвөнхийн {гортани}
          laryng/o: larynx = төвөнх {гортани}

-ic, ical = pertaining to

     chronic: suffering from for a long time or frequently = архаг, ужиг {хронических}
          chron/o: time
     neurological: pertaining to the nervous system
          = мэдрэлийн системийн {неврологические}
          neur/o: nerve
          -logy: study of

-oid = resembling, to look like

     hemorrhoid = шамбарам, цагаан мах гарах {геморрой}
          hem/o: blood
          -rrhea: flow

Hemorrhoid (or haemorrhoids) are vascular structures in the anal canal which help with stool [гүйлгэх] control. They can become swollen or inflamed. Normally, they act as a cushion composed of arterio-venous channels and connective tissue that help the passage of stool. Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless rectal bleeding while external hemorrhoids present with pain in the area of the anus.

Just think about the “increased blood flow” that makes them “look like glands”.

-ose = pertaining to, full of

     adipose: pertaining to fat = өөхний, өөхний тосны, өөхлөг {жировой}
          adip/o: fat = өөх, тос

-ous = pertaining to

     mucous: pertaining to the mucus = салслаг, салст {слизистой}
          muc/o: mucus = салс {слизи}

Note: both “mucus” and “mucous” have the same pronunciation but one is a noun and the other is an adjective.

-tic = pertaining to

     necrotic: pertaining to the death of living tissue = үхүүлсэн {некротические}
          necr/o: death, necrosis


REVIEW

Adjective Suffixes
SuffixMeaning
-ac, -iacpertaining to
-alpertaining to
-arpertaining to
-arypertaining to
-ealpertaining to
-ic, icalpertaining to
-oidresembling
-osepertaining to, full of
-ouspertaining to
-ticpertaining to

New Words:
  • peritoneum: (noun) = {брюшины}
  • axilla = суганы хонхорхой {подмышечная впадина}
  • armpit = суга {одноименный}

Combining FormsMeaning
adip/ofat
axill/oaxilla (armpit)
cardi/oheart
chron/otime
hem/oblood
inguin/ogroin
laryng/olarynx
muc/omucus
necr/odeath, necrosis
neur/onerve
peritone/operitoneum
pleur/o:pleura
tonsill/otonsils
Medical Terms
  • cardiac: pertaining to the heart
  • peritoneal: pertaining to the lining of the abdominal cavity
  • peritoneum: the lining of the abdominal cavity
  • inguinal: of, relating to, or situated in the region of the groin
  • pleural: pertaining to the pleura
  • tonsillar: pertaining to the tonsils
Pronunciation Practice
= peritoneum [pe·ri·to·ne·um]
= armpit [arm·pit]
= cardiac [car·di·ac]
= peritoneal [pe·ri·to·ne·al]
= peritoneum [pe·ri·to·ne·um]
= inguinal [in·gui·nal]
= pleural [pleu·ral]
= tonsillar [ton·sil·lar]
= axilla [ax·il·la]


Previous Lesson
Chapter 3: Suffixes
More Noun Suffixes
Next Lesson
Chapter 3: Suffixes
Rules for Making Plural Suffixes

MT-3: More Noun Suffixes

Quick Links to Chapter 3: Suffixes Lessons
Suffix Linking
Noun Suffixes
More Noun Suffixes
Adjective Suffixes
Rules for Making Plural Suffixes

3: SUFFIXES:
More Noun Suffixes

-er = one who

     This is an easy one to remember because we use it all the time like with words like painter, waiter, runner, swimmer, and worker.

     radiographer: a person who makes radiographs; specifically an X-ray technician
          = дүрс оношлогооны техникч, рентген зурагчин
          radi/o: radiation, radiative energy
          -graph: image

X-ray Technicians have different other names like X-ray Tech, Radiology Technician or Radiology Technologist, Radiologic Technologist, also known as Medical Radiation Technologist and as Radiographer. They are responsible for taking x rays, CT scans or MRIs or any other diagnostic imagery of a body part or parts on a patient and as per order by the doctor. They are also responsible for maintaining and cleaning of the radiology equipment. They usually work in a department in a facility either in a hospital or a clinic. The job of a radiology technician is not only taking x rays but also must have a knowledge about transporting and transferring of the patients, proper draping techniques for privacy, and proper positioning of the patient so as to get the most accurate and clear x ray images.

-ist = one who

     A “specialist” is a person who is an expert in a particular or “special” area of work or study. Many professions, including medicine, have specialists.

     nephrologist: a doctor concerned with the kidneys = бөөрний эмч {нефролог}
          &nephr/o: kidney

-ia = condition

          leukemia: abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells
           = цус багадалт {лейкемия}
          leuk/o: white
          -emia: condition of the blood

     pneumonia: condition of the lungs where infection causes inflammation in the alveoli and then they fill up with fluid so they can no longer absorb as much oxygen into the body.
          = хатгаа {пневмония}
          pneumon/o: lungs

-ole, -ule = little, small

     arteriole: small artery = артерийн жижиг судас {мелкая артерия}
     venule: small vein = венийн жижиг судас {венула}

          artery = артерийн судас, тараагуур судас {артерия}
          arteriole = артерийн жижиг судас {мелкая артерия}
          capillary = хялгасан судас {капиллярный}
          venule: small vein = венийн жижиг судас {венула}
          vein = хураагуур судас, венийн судас {ключе}

-ium = structure, tissue, membrane, thing

     pericardium: membrane around the heart = зүрхний ойролцоох үнхэлцэг {перикарда}
          peri-: around
          cardi/o: heart

-y = condition, process

     There are quite a few words in everyday English that use the suffix -y, for example: windy, sunny, lucky, sleepy, and rainy.


REVIEW

More Noun Suffixes
SuffixMeaning
-erone who
-istone who
-iacondition
-ole, -ulelittle, small
-um, -iumstructure, tissue, thing
-ycondition, process

New Words:
  • artery = артерийн судас, тараагуур судас {артерия}
  • arteriole: small artery = артерийн жижиг судас {мелкая артерия}
  • capillary = хялгасан судас {капиллярный}
  • venule: small vein = венийн жижиг судас {венула}
  • vein = хураагуур судас, венийн судас {ключе}
  • peritoneum: (noun) = {брюшины}
  • axilla = суганы хонхорхой {подмышечная впадина}
  • armpit = суга {одноименный}

Combining FormsMeaning
cardi/o heart
leuk/owhite
nephr/okidney
pneumon/o, pulmon/olungs
radi/oradiation, radiative energy

Medical Terms
  • radiographer: a person who makes radiographs; X-ray technician
  • nephrologist: a doctor concerned with the kidneys
  • leukemia: abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells
  • pneumonia: condition of the lungs where alveoli fill up with fluid
  • arteriole: small artery
  • venule: small vein
  • pericardium: membrane around the heart

Pronunciation Practice
= artery [ar·te·ry]
= arteriole [ar·te·ri·ole]
= capillary [cap·il·la·ry]
= venule [ve·nule]
= vein [vein]
= radiographer [ra·di·og·ra·pher]
= nephrologist [ne·phrol·o·gist]
= leukemia [leu·ke·mia]
= pneumonia [pneu·mo·nia]
= pericardium [pe·ri·car·di·um]


Previous Lesson
Chapter 3: Suffixes
Noun Suffixes
Next Lesson
Chapter 3: Suffixes
Adjective Suffixes

Tuesday, February 5, 2013

TERM: Pseudomonas infection

Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonies on an agar plate
Pseudomonas infection: The infection is usually with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a "blue-green pus bacteria. Because it rarely causes disease in healthy persons, but infects those who are already sick or who have weakened immune systems, it is called an opportunistic pathogen. Opportunistic pathogens are organisms that do not ordinarily cause disease, but multiply freely in persons whose immune systems are weakened by illness or medication. Such persons are said to be immunocompromised. Patients with AIDS have an increased risk of developing serious pseudomonas infections.

Hospitalized patients are another highrisk group, because Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often found in hospitals. Infections that can be acquired in the hospital are sometimes called nosocomial infections. It also tends to infect those with indwelling catheters or on respirators. Infection with pseudomonas can lead to urinary tract infections, sepsis (blood stream infection), pneumonia, pharyngitis, and many other medical problems. Pseudomonas colonizes the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and contributes to the chronic progressive pulmonary disease and death rate in CF.

Pseudomonas infections can be spread within hospitals by health care workers, medical equipment, sinks, disinfectant solutions, and food. These infections are a very serious problem in hospitals for two reasons. First, patients who are critically ill can die from a pseudomonas infection. Second, many Pseudomonas bacteria are resistant to certain antibiotics, which makes them difficult to treat.

Word List:
  • pus: a thick yellowish or greenish liquid that is produced in an infected wound
  • opportunistic: causing disease only under certain conditions, as when a person is already sick or has a weak immune system.
  • pathogen: any microorganism that produces disease.
  • acquired: to get something
  • immunocompromised: having a weak immune system due to disease or the use of certain medications.
  • nosocomial infection: an infection that is acquired in the hospital.
  • colonizes: to live or grow in large numbers in a particular area
Pronunciation:
= pseudomonas
= pus
= opportunistic
= pathogen
= acquired
= immunocompromised
= nosocomial
= colonize
= indwelling
= catheter
= sepsis
= pneumonia
= pharyngitis

Reference:
MedTerm.com - Pseudomonas Infection
Wikipedia - pseudomonas
WebMD.com - pseudomonas infection
Free Dictionary - Medical - pseudomonas infections
Medscape.com - pseudomonas infections

Saturday, February 2, 2013

MT-3: Noun Suffixes

Quick Links to Chapter 3: Suffixes Lessons
Suffix Linking
Noun Suffixes
More Noun Suffixes
Adjective Suffixes
Rules for Making Plural Suffixes

3: SUFFIXES:
Noun Suffixes

-coccus, -cocci (pl) = berry-shaped bacterium (bacteria)

     streptococcus = хэлхээ бөм {гормон}
          strept/o = twisted (like a twisted chain)
     staphylococci = хонхорцог бөм
          staphyl/o = grape-like cluster; uvula


-cyte = cell

     erythrocyte: red blood cell = цусны улаан бөөм {эритроцитов}
          erythr/o = redness
     leukocyte: white blood cell = цагаан эс {лейкоцитарной}
          leuk/o = white
     thrombocyte: platelet = цусны ялтас, тромбоцит {пластинка}
          thromb/o = clot


-esis = condition

     diuresis: condition where too much urine produced = диурез {отдых}
          di-: two, double
          ur/o: urine = шээс {мочи}

-genic = pertaining to, producing, produced by, produced in

     carcinogenic: producing cancer = хорт хавпар үүсгэгч
          carcin/o: cancer = хорт хавдар {рака}
     osteogenic: producing bone, originating in bone = {остеодженик}
          oste/o: bone = яс {кости}

-ia = condition

     pneumonia: infection of the lung = уушгины хатгалгаа {пневмония}
          pneumon/o, pneum/o: lungs

Note: remember that words beginning with “pn”, the “p” is silent.

-iatry = medicine; treatment

     podiatry: specialty that treats conditions of the feet = тавхайн өвчний эмчилгээ
          pod/o: feet

-ician = specialist

     obstetrician: (OB) physician who is concerned with pregnancy and childbirth
          = эх барих эмч, эмэгтэйчүүдийн эмч { акушер-гинеколог}
          obstetr/o: midwife = эх баригч {акушерка}
     pediatrician: doctor who treats children = хүүхдийн эмч {педиатр}
          ped/o: child (sometimes “foot”)

-ism = condition

     hyperthyroidism: condition with an overactive thyroid gland = бамбайн хордлого
          hyper-: excessive, too much
          thyroid/o, thyr/o: thyroid gland = бамбай булчирхай {щитовидная железа}

-ist, -logist = specialist

     hematologist: physician who specializes in blood disorders = цусны эмч
          hemat/o, hem/a, hem/o: blood = Цус {крови}

-logy = study of

     ophthalmology: study of diseases of the eye = нүдний өвчин судлал {офтальмология}
          ophthalm/o: eye = нүд

Note: in the root ophthalm/o, the "ph" is not pronounced like "f" but "p" where the "h" is silent.

-opsy = to view

     biopsy: examination of tissue, cells, or fluids from the living body = биопси {биопсия}
     necropsy: examination of the body after death = хүүрийн задлан {вскрытие трупа}
          also called autopsy, postmortem, postmortem examination
          necr/o: death

-sclerosis = hardening

     arteriosclerosis: chronic disease of hardening of the arterial walls
          = артериосклероз {атеросклероз}
          arteri/o, arter/o: artery = тараагуур судас, артери, артерийн судас {артерия}

-stasis = stopping, controlling

     metastasis: spread of a something producing disease (as cancer cells or bacteria) from the initial location of disease to another part of the body = үсэрхийлэл {метастазирования}
          meta-: change, next in a series
     hemostasis: stopping blood flow or slowing it = цус тогтоох

-therapy = treatment

     hydrotherapy: treatment using water (as in a whirlpool bath) = усаар эмчлэх ухаан
          hydr/o: water
     chemotherapy: use of chemical agents in the treatment = химиотерапия
          chem/o: chemical
     radiotherapy: treatment of disease using radiation = ионжуулсан туяагаар эмчлэх {радиотерапии}
          radi/o: radiation

-y = condition; process (action)

     neuropathy: disease condition of the nerves = мэдрэлийн өвчин {невропатия}
          neur/o, nerv/o: nerve


REVIEW

SuffixMeaning
-coccus, -cocci (pl)berry-shaped bacterium
-cytecell
-esiscondition
-genicpertaining to, producing, produced by, produced in
-iacondition
-iatrymedicine; treatment
-icianspecialist
-ismcondition
-istspecialist
-logystudy of
-opsyto view
-sclerosishardening
-stasisstopping, controlling
-therapytreatment
-ycondition; process
Medical Terms
  • erythrocyte: red blood cell
  • leukocyte: white blood cell
  • thrombocyte: platelet
  • diuresis: condition where too much urine produced
  • carcinogenic: producing cancer = хорт хавпар үүсгэгч
  • osteogenic: producing bone, originating in bone
  • pneumonia: infection of the lung
  • podiatry: specialty that treats conditions of the feet
  • obstetrician: (OB) physician who is concerned with pregnancy and childbirth
  • pediatrician: doctor who treats children
  • hyperthyroidism: condition with an overactive thyroid gland
  • hematologist: physician who specializes in blood disorders
  • ophthalmology: study of diseases of the eye
  • biopsy: examination of tissue, cells, or fluids from the living body
  • necropsy, autopsy, postmortem: examination of the body after death
  • arteriosclerosis: chronic disease of hardening of the arterial walls
  • metastasis: spread of a something producing disease (as cancer cells or bacteria) from the initial location of disease to another part of the body
  • hemostasis: stopping blood flow or slowing it
  • hydrotherapy: treatment using water
  • chemotherapy: use of chemical agents in the treatment
  • radiotherapy: treatment of disease using radiation
  • neuropathy: disease condition of the nerves
Pronunciation Practice:
= erythrocyte [e·ryth·ro·cyte]
= leukocyte [leu·ko·cyte]
= thrombocyte [throm·bo·cyte]
= diuresis [di·ure·sis]
= carcinogenic [car·ci·no·gen·ic]
= osteogenic [os·te·o·gen·ic]
= pneumonia [pneu·mo·ni·a]
= podiatry [po·di·a·try]
= obstetrician [ob·ste·tri·cian]
= pediatrician [pe·di·a·tri·cian]
= hyperthyroidism [hy·per·thy·roid·ism]
= hematologist [he·ma·tol·o·gy]
= ophthalmology [oph·thal·mol·o·gy]
= biopsy [bi·op·sy]
= necropsy [nec·rop·sy]
= arteriosclerosis [ar·te·ri·o·scle·ro·sis]
= metastasis [me·tas·ta·sis]
= hemostasis [he·mo·sta·sis]
= hydrotherapy [hy·dro·ther·a·py]
= chemotherapy [che·mo·ther·a·py]
= radiotherapy [ra·di·o·ther·a·py]
= neuropathy [neu·rop·a·thy]


with exercises

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