Tuesday, January 15, 2013

MT-2: Useful Suffixes

Quick Links to Chapter 2: Basics Lessons
Where Did the Medical Words Come From?
Parts, Parts and More Parts
Useful Suffixes
Some Useful Prefixes
And Some Useful Combining Forms

Useful Suffixes

Here are some frequently used suffixes used to make up many medical terms.

-ac, -al = pertaining to, belonging to, referring to

Some words you already know have -ac like maniac; mania (too much excitement) + ac. Examples of -al words are national; nation + al, tropical; tropic + al, and personal; person + al. In medicine we have:

     cardiac: pertaining to the heart = зүрхний {сердечная}
     renal: pertaining to the kidney = бөөрний {почечной}

More examples: anal (anus), fecal (feces), fetal (fetus), viral (virus), dental (dent - tooth)

-ectomy = to cut out (excise), surgically remove

     appendectomy: removal of the appendix = мухар олгойг авах {удаление аппендицита}

-emia = blood, usually a diseased condition of the blood, blood condition

     anemia: “no” blood, low hemoglobin, red blood cells, or both = цус багадалт {анемии}

-ic, -ical = pertaining to, having to do with

Some -ic words you might already know: arabic (arab), atomic (atom), metric (meter), and nomadic (nomad). Medical (medicine), musical (music) and mechanical (machine) also use the -ical suffix ending. Some medical terminology examples are:

     gastric: pertaining to the stomach = ходоодны {желудочного}
     neurological: pertaining to nervous system = мэдрэлийн системийн {неврологические}

-ion: process (action)

     excision: process of cutting out/removal of something

Note: -sion ending can have a “zhun” pronunciation, like words television and vision, but sometimes it can also have a “shun” sound like tension and mission.

-itis = inflammation

     appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix = мухар олгойн үрэвсэл {аппендицита}
          append/o, appendic/o = appendix

Note: Mongolian (and sometimes Russian) translations are provided to help the student learn faster but should not be depended on – better to learn the English-English meaning.

-logist: a person who specializes in something

     nephrologist: a doctor who specializes in the kidney and its diseases = бөөрний эмч

-logy, -ology: study of, to deal with

     cardiology: study of the heart and the cardiovascular system
= зүрхний өвчин судлал {кардиология}

Note: -gy is pronounced like “jee” like in the words energy and allergy.

-oma: tumor, mass, swelling

     hematoma: collection of blood in tissue caused by a blood vessel break = цусан бундуу
          hemat/o - blood

-opsy: to look at, to see, process of viewing

     biopsy: process of viewing tissue = {биопсия}
          bio - life

-osis: abnormal condition or process of some disease

     cyanosis: abnormal condition of blueness due to cold or low oxygen = хөхрөлт {синюха}
          cyan- - blue

-ostomy: to make an opening or a "mouth"

     colostomy: make an opening in colon = бүдүүн гэдсэгд гуурс тавих {колостоми}
colostomy showing the stoma and colostomy bag
     A surgeon creates an opening from the colon (section of the large intestine) to the surface of the body so that body waste can exit through a hole in the colon and through the wall of the abdomen to the skin. At this opening (stoma), a bag can be attached to collect body waste.

-otomy, -tomy: incision of (cut into, through) something

     tracheotomy: incision through the neck into the trachea
= мөгөөрсөн хоолойд мэс засал хийх
          trache/o – trachea = цагаан мөгөөрсөн хоолой {трахеи}

Note: In most medical words, “ch” is usually pronounced like a “k” as in school, stomach, and chemistry

-plasty: surgical repair

     rhinoplasty: surgical repair of the nose
          rhin/o - nose

-rrhea: to flow, flowing from, discharge from

     diarrhea: frequent discharge of too much watery feces by the bowels, usually as a symptom of upset stomach or an infection = суулгалт {понос}
     menorrhea: menstrual flow = биеийн юм, сарын тэмдэг {меноррхеа}

-scope: instrument to look or observe

     endoscope: instrument for examining inside = дотор эрхтний дуран {эндоскопа}
          end/o – within, inside

-scopy: to look or observe

     endoscopy: visual examination within something = {эндоскопия}

-graphy: recording an image

     mammography: imaging the breasts = хөхний рентген шинжилгээ {маммография}
          mamm/o = breasts
     electroencephalography: instrument for recording brain waves
= тархины цахилгаан бичлэгийн шинжилгээ {электроэнцефалография}
          electr/o = electricity
          encephal/o = brain - [ en (inside) + cephal/o (head) ]

-graph: machine (or instrument) that records

     electrocardiograph: machine to record electrical changes in the heart during a heartbeat
= зүрхний бичлэгийн хэрэгсэл, цахилгаан зүрхний аппарат {электрокардиографа}

-gram: the image

     mammogram: x-ray of the breast = хөхний рентген зураг {маммограмма}
     electroencephalogram = тархины цахилгаан бичлэг {электроэнцефалограмма}

For example, mammography is the action of recording the x-ray, called mammogram. A recording of heart activity is called an electrocardiogram using an electrocardiograph. A recording of brain activity is an electroencephalogram.

Other types of images:
     X-ray = рентгэн зураг {х лучей}
     CT scan (computer tomography) = компютер томограф {КТ-сканирование}
     MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging) = {МРТ сканировании}


-ac, -alpertaining tocardiac, renal
-ectomyto cut out, surgically removeappendectomy
-emiablood conditionanemia
-ic, -icalpertaining togastric, neurological
-ionprocess (action)excision
-logistspecialize innephrologist
-logystudy ofcardiology
-omatumor, mass, swellinghematoma
-opsyprocess of viewingbiopsy
-osisabnormal conditioncyanosis
-ostomyto make a "mouth"colostomy
-otomy, -tomyto cut intotracheotomy
-plastysurgical repairrhinoplasty
-rrheadischarge fromdiarrhea
-scopeinstrument to look or observeendoscope
-scopyto look or observeendoscopy
-graphyrecording an imagemammography
-graphmachine that recordselectrocardiograph
-gramthe imagemammogram
More words:
  • pertaining: belong or related to = хамаарах
  • process: way of doing/making something (action)
  • specialize: become an expert in a particular area of medicine
  • tumor: not normal growth of tissue that has no function
  • mass: collection or growth of something solid, usually not normal
  • swelling: becomes larger usually due to inflammation
  • condition: how something is at present
  • abnormal: not normal
  • discharge: gas or a liquid flows somewhere
  • X-ray = рентгэн зураг {х лучей}
  • CT scan (computer tomography) = компютер томограф {КТ-сканирование}
  • MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging) = {МРТ сканировании}
Medical Terminology
  • cardiac: pertaining to the heart
  • renal: pertaining to the kidney
  • appendectomy: removal of the appendix
  • anemia: low hemoglobin, red blood cells, or both
  • gastric: pertaining to the stomach
  • neurological: pertaining to the nervous system
  • excision: process (action) of cutting out/removing something
  • appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix
  • nephrologist: doctor who specializes in the kidney
  • cardiology: study of the heart and cardiovascular system
  • hematoma: swelling due to collection of blood
  • biopsy: process of viewing tissue (life)
  • cyanosis: abnormal condition of blueness
  • colostomy: make an opening in colon
  • rhinoplasty: surgical repair of the nose
  • diarrhea: frequent discharge of too much watery feces by the bowels
  • endoscope: instrument for examining within something
  • endoscopy: visual examination within something
  • tracheotomy: incision (through the neck) into the trachea
  • mammography: imaging the breasts
  • mammogram: x-ray of the breast
  • electroencephalography: machine to recording brain waves
  • electrocardiograph: instrument to record electrical changes in the heart
Pronunciation Practice:
= cardiac [car·di·ac]
= renal [re·nal]
= appendectomy [ap·pen·dec·to·my]
= anemia [a·ne·mia]
= gastric [gas·tric]
= neurological [neu·rol·o·gy]
= excision [ex·ci·sion]
= appendicitis [ap·pen·di·ci·tis]
= nephrologist [ne·phrol·o·gy]
= cardiology [car·di·ol·o·gy]
= hematoma [he·ma·to·ma]
= biopsy [bi·op·sy]
= cyanosis [cy·a·no·sis]
= colostomy [co·los·to·my]
= rhinoplasty [rhi·no·plas·ty]
= diarrhea [di·ar·rhea]
= endoscope [en·do·scope]
= endoscopy [en·dos·co·py]
= tracheotomy [tra·che·ot·o·my]
= mammography [mam·mog·ra·phy]
= mammogram [mam·mo·gram]
= electroencephalography [elec·tro·en·ceph·a·log·ra·phy]
= electrocardiograph [elec·tro·car·dio·graph]

with exercises

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Some Useful Prefixes