Tuesday, January 15, 2013

MT-2: Useful Suffixes

Quick Links to Chapter 2: Basics Lessons
Where Did the Medical Words Come From?
Parts, Parts and More Parts
Useful Suffixes
Some Useful Prefixes
And Some Useful Combining Forms

2: BASICS:
Useful Suffixes

Here are some frequently used suffixes used to make up many medical terms.

-ac, -al = pertaining to, belonging to, referring to

Some words you already know have -ac like maniac; mania (too much excitement) + ac. Examples of -al words are national; nation + al, tropical; tropic + al, and personal; person + al. In medicine we have:

     cardiac: pertaining to the heart = зүрхний {сердечная}
     renal: pertaining to the kidney = бөөрний {почечной}

More examples: anal (anus), fecal (feces), fetal (fetus), viral (virus), dental (dent - tooth)

-ectomy = to cut out (excise), surgically remove

     appendectomy: removal of the appendix = мухар олгойг авах {удаление аппендицита}

-emia = blood, usually a diseased condition of the blood, blood condition

     anemia: “no” blood, low hemoglobin, red blood cells, or both = цус багадалт {анемии}

-ic, -ical = pertaining to, having to do with

Some -ic words you might already know: arabic (arab), atomic (atom), metric (meter), and nomadic (nomad). Medical (medicine), musical (music) and mechanical (machine) also use the -ical suffix ending. Some medical terminology examples are:

     gastric: pertaining to the stomach = ходоодны {желудочного}
     neurological: pertaining to nervous system = мэдрэлийн системийн {неврологические}

-ion: process (action)

     excision: process of cutting out/removal of something

Note: -sion ending can have a “zhun” pronunciation, like words television and vision, but sometimes it can also have a “shun” sound like tension and mission.

-itis = inflammation

     appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix = мухар олгойн үрэвсэл {аппендицита}
          append/o, appendic/o = appendix

Note: Mongolian (and sometimes Russian) translations are provided to help the student learn faster but should not be depended on – better to learn the English-English meaning.

-logist: a person who specializes in something

     nephrologist: a doctor who specializes in the kidney and its diseases = бөөрний эмч

-logy, -ology: study of, to deal with

     cardiology: study of the heart and the cardiovascular system
= зүрхний өвчин судлал {кардиология}

Note: -gy is pronounced like “jee” like in the words energy and allergy.

-oma: tumor, mass, swelling

     hematoma: collection of blood in tissue caused by a blood vessel break = цусан бундуу
          hemat/o - blood

-opsy: to look at, to see, process of viewing

     biopsy: process of viewing tissue = {биопсия}
          bio - life

-osis: abnormal condition or process of some disease

     cyanosis: abnormal condition of blueness due to cold or low oxygen = хөхрөлт {синюха}
          cyan- - blue

-ostomy: to make an opening or a "mouth"

     colostomy: make an opening in colon = бүдүүн гэдсэгд гуурс тавих {колостоми}
colostomy showing the stoma and colostomy bag
     A surgeon creates an opening from the colon (section of the large intestine) to the surface of the body so that body waste can exit through a hole in the colon and through the wall of the abdomen to the skin. At this opening (stoma), a bag can be attached to collect body waste.

-otomy, -tomy: incision of (cut into, through) something

     tracheotomy: incision through the neck into the trachea
= мөгөөрсөн хоолойд мэс засал хийх
          trache/o – trachea = цагаан мөгөөрсөн хоолой {трахеи}

Note: In most medical words, “ch” is usually pronounced like a “k” as in school, stomach, and chemistry

-plasty: surgical repair

     rhinoplasty: surgical repair of the nose
          rhin/o - nose

-rrhea: to flow, flowing from, discharge from

     diarrhea: frequent discharge of too much watery feces by the bowels, usually as a symptom of upset stomach or an infection = суулгалт {понос}
     menorrhea: menstrual flow = биеийн юм, сарын тэмдэг {меноррхеа}

-scope: instrument to look or observe

     endoscope: instrument for examining inside = дотор эрхтний дуран {эндоскопа}
          end/o – within, inside

-scopy: to look or observe

     endoscopy: visual examination within something = {эндоскопия}

-graphy: recording an image

     mammography: imaging the breasts = хөхний рентген шинжилгээ {маммография}
          mamm/o = breasts
     electroencephalography: instrument for recording brain waves
= тархины цахилгаан бичлэгийн шинжилгээ {электроэнцефалография}
          electr/o = electricity
          encephal/o = brain - [ en (inside) + cephal/o (head) ]

-graph: machine (or instrument) that records

     electrocardiograph: machine to record electrical changes in the heart during a heartbeat
= зүрхний бичлэгийн хэрэгсэл, цахилгаан зүрхний аппарат {электрокардиографа}

-gram: the image

     mammogram: x-ray of the breast = хөхний рентген зураг {маммограмма}
     electroencephalogram = тархины цахилгаан бичлэг {электроэнцефалограмма}

For example, mammography is the action of recording the x-ray, called mammogram. A recording of heart activity is called an electrocardiogram using an electrocardiograph. A recording of brain activity is an electroencephalogram.

Other types of images:
     X-ray = рентгэн зураг {х лучей}
     CT scan (computer tomography) = компютер томограф {КТ-сканирование}
     MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging) = {МРТ сканировании}


Review

SuffixmeaningExamples
-ac, -alpertaining tocardiac, renal
-ectomyto cut out, surgically removeappendectomy
-emiablood conditionanemia
-ic, -icalpertaining togastric, neurological
-ionprocess (action)excision
-itisinflammationappendicitis
-logistspecialize innephrologist
-logystudy ofcardiology
-omatumor, mass, swellinghematoma
-opsyprocess of viewingbiopsy
-osisabnormal conditioncyanosis
-ostomyto make a "mouth"colostomy
-otomy, -tomyto cut intotracheotomy
-plastysurgical repairrhinoplasty
-rrheadischarge fromdiarrhea
-scopeinstrument to look or observeendoscope
-scopyto look or observeendoscopy
-graphyrecording an imagemammography
-graphmachine that recordselectrocardiograph
-gramthe imagemammogram
More words:
  • pertaining: belong or related to = хамаарах
  • process: way of doing/making something (action)
  • specialize: become an expert in a particular area of medicine
  • tumor: not normal growth of tissue that has no function
  • mass: collection or growth of something solid, usually not normal
  • swelling: becomes larger usually due to inflammation
  • condition: how something is at present
  • abnormal: not normal
  • discharge: gas or a liquid flows somewhere
  • X-ray = рентгэн зураг {х лучей}
  • CT scan (computer tomography) = компютер томограф {КТ-сканирование}
  • MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging) = {МРТ сканировании}
Medical Terminology
  • cardiac: pertaining to the heart
  • renal: pertaining to the kidney
  • appendectomy: removal of the appendix
  • anemia: low hemoglobin, red blood cells, or both
  • gastric: pertaining to the stomach
  • neurological: pertaining to the nervous system
  • excision: process (action) of cutting out/removing something
  • appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix
  • nephrologist: doctor who specializes in the kidney
  • cardiology: study of the heart and cardiovascular system
  • hematoma: swelling due to collection of blood
  • biopsy: process of viewing tissue (life)
  • cyanosis: abnormal condition of blueness
  • colostomy: make an opening in colon
  • rhinoplasty: surgical repair of the nose
  • diarrhea: frequent discharge of too much watery feces by the bowels
  • endoscope: instrument for examining within something
  • endoscopy: visual examination within something
  • tracheotomy: incision (through the neck) into the trachea
  • mammography: imaging the breasts
  • mammogram: x-ray of the breast
  • electroencephalography: machine to recording brain waves
  • electrocardiograph: instrument to record electrical changes in the heart
Pronunciation Practice:
= cardiac [car·di·ac]
= renal [re·nal]
= appendectomy [ap·pen·dec·to·my]
= anemia [a·ne·mia]
= gastric [gas·tric]
= neurological [neu·rol·o·gy]
= excision [ex·ci·sion]
= appendicitis [ap·pen·di·ci·tis]
= nephrologist [ne·phrol·o·gy]
= cardiology [car·di·ol·o·gy]
= hematoma [he·ma·to·ma]
= biopsy [bi·op·sy]
= cyanosis [cy·a·no·sis]
= colostomy [co·los·to·my]
= rhinoplasty [rhi·no·plas·ty]
= diarrhea [di·ar·rhea]
= endoscope [en·do·scope]
= endoscopy [en·dos·co·py]
= tracheotomy [tra·che·ot·o·my]
= mammography [mam·mog·ra·phy]
= mammogram [mam·mo·gram]
= electroencephalography [elec·tro·en·ceph·a·log·ra·phy]
= electrocardiograph [elec·tro·car·dio·graph]


with exercises

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Some Useful Prefixes