Tuesday, January 8, 2013

MT-2: Parts, parts and more parts

Quick Links to Chapter 2: Basics Lessons
Where Did the Medical Words Come From?
Parts, Parts and More Parts
Useful Suffixes
Some Useful Prefixes
And Some Useful Combining Forms

2: BASICS:
Parts, Parts and More Parts

Let's look at a medical term, nephrology, the study of the kidney and its diseases, and see how the parts go together.

nephr + o + logy

nephr = root meaning “kidney”
o = combining vowel
logy = suffix meaning “the study of”

Note: Pronunciation: remember “ph” has the sound of “f”

Now, in the introduction we said that medical terms can be made using different parts like word roots, suffixes and prefixes. For these Greek and Latin word roots, most of the time there is a combining vowel used between them. Usually it is the vowel “o” and is written like this /o when defining word roots in these lessons.

dermat + “o” = dermat/o: skin
cutane + “o” = cutane/o: skin
nephr + “o” = nephr/o: kidney
ren + “o” = ren/o: kidney

word root + “o” = combining form

A word root and its combining vowel are called the combining form.


dermat/o + logy = dermatology: the study of the skin and its diseases

But, if the suffix begins with a vowel, the combining vowel is not used. For example:

gastr/o + itis = gastritis

gastr/o: stomach
-itis: inflammation = biological response (pain, heat, red, swelling) of tissues when harmed
gastritis: inflammation of the stomach

Because the suffix ending “-itis” begins with a vowel, the combining vowel is not used in the word gastritis, the inflammation of the stomach. Both suffixes and prefixes (which go at the beginning) use a hypen “-” when written alone.

But, when combining two word roots where the second word root begins with a vowel, we keep the “o” between them. For example:


osteo (combining form) + arthr (root) + itis (suffix)

oste/o: bone
arthr/o: joint
-itis: inflammation
osteoarthritis: inflammation of the bone and joints

Here are a few more examples:

word root and a suffix
nephr/o: about the kidney
+ -oma: tumor
= nephroma: tumor of the kidney

prefix and a suffix
dis-, dys-: bad, painful, difficult
+ -pnea: breathing
= dyspnea: difficulty breathing

or many combinations of word roots, prefixes and suffixes

gastr/o: stomach
+ enter/o: intestines
+ -logy: study of
= gastroenterology: study of stomach and intestines

poly-: many, much
+ arthr/o: joint
+ -itis: inflammation
= polyarthritis: inflammation of many joints


Review
  • A combining form (word root + “o”) join a suffix that begins with a consonant
  • A word root joins together with a suffix that begins with a vowel
  • A combining form always joins a root with another root even if there is a vowel
  • Sometimes a medical word is just a prefix and suffix with no word root
Vocabulary Review
Hippocrates: Father of (Western) Medicine, Greek = Гиппократ
Hippocratic Oath: doctor promise to help and not hurt = Гиппократын тангараг
physician: doctor of medicine = эмч
disease: illness affecting humans, animals or plants, often caused by infection = өвчин
condition: an illness or a medical problem
diagnosis: identifying the exact cause of an illness = оношилгоо /диагностики/
treatment: something that is done to cure an illness or injury = эмчилгээ
to pertain: belong or related to = хамаарах

Prefixes:
dis-, dys-: bad, painful, difficult
poly-: many, much

Word Roots:
dermat/o: skin
cutane/o: skin
nephr/o: kidney
ren/o: kidney
gastr/o: stomach
oste/o: bone
arthr/o: joint
enter/o: intestines

Suffixes:
-logy: study of
-itis: inflammation
-oma: tumor

Medical Terminology:
  • inflammation: biological response (pain, heat, redness, swelling) of tissues when harmed = үрэвсэл {воспаление]
  • tumor: not normal tissue growth = хавдар {опухоль}
  • dermatitis: inflammation of the skin = биржрүү, тууралт {дерматит}
  • nephrology: study of the kidney = бөөрний өвчин судлал, бөөр судлал
  • cutaneous: pertaining to the skin = арьсны {кожным}
  • nephroma: tumor of the kidney = {нефрома}
  • renal: about the kidney = бөөрний {почечной}
  • gastritis: inflammation of the stomach = ходоодны үрэвсэл, гастрит {гастритом}
  • dyspnea: difficulty breathing = амьсгаадалт {отдышки}
  • gastroenterology: study of stomach and intestines = одоод гэдэсний өвчин судлал
  • polyarthritis: inflammation of many joints = полиартрит
  • osteoarthritis: inflammation of the bone and joints = остеартрит
Note: Mongolian (and sometimes Russian) translations are provided to help the student learn faster but should not be depended on – better to learn the English-English meaning.

Pronunciation Practice:
= inflammation [in·flam·ma·tion]
= tumor [tu·mor]
= dermatitis [der·ma·ti·tis]
= nephrology [ne·phrol·o·gy]
= cutaneous [cu·ta·ne·ous]
= nephroma [ne·phro·ma]
= renal [re·nal]
= gastritis [gas·tri·tis]
= dyspnea [dysp·nea]
= gastroenterology [gas·tro·en·ter·ol·o·gy]
= polyarthritis [poly·ar·thri·tis]
= osteoarthritis [os·te·o·ar·thri·tis]


with exercises

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Where did medical words come from?
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Useful Suffixes