Thursday, January 24, 2013

MT-2: And Some Useful Combining Forms

Quick Links to Chapter 2: Basics Lessons
Where Did the Medical Words Come From?
Parts, Parts and More Parts
Useful Suffixes
Some Useful Prefixes
And Some Useful Combining Forms

2: BASICS:
And Some Useful Combining Forms

Before we start studying systems of the body, here are a few word roots of the major organs in the body.

arthr/o: joint

     arthritis: inflammation of a joint

stomat/o: mouth = ам

     stomatitis: inflammation of the mouth = стоматит, амны салстын үрэвсэл {стоматит}

dent/o: teeth = шүднүүд

     dentist : doctor who is a teeth specialist = шүдний эмч {стоматолог}

gloss/o, lingu/o: tongue = хэл

     glossitis: inflammation of the tongue = {глоссит, воспаление языка}
     lingual nerve: branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve for the anterior (front) two thirds of the tongue and responds to pressure, touch, and temperature = хэлний мэдрэл {лингвального нервных}

As we already discussed, sometimes there is more than one word root for the same organ. For example, "gloss/o" and "lingu/o". Usually, one is from the Greek and one from Latin. You need to know both roots because you may see either of them used in different medical terms.

gingiv/o: gums = буйл

     gingivitis: inflammation of the gums = буйлны үрэвсэл {гингивит, воспаление дёсен}

encephal/o: brain = тархи, уураг тархи

     The combining form “cephal/o” means head, and the prefix “en-” means inside, so together they mean “inside the head” or the brain.

     encephalitis: inflammation of the brain = тархи нугасны үрэвсэл {энцефалит}

gastr/o: stomach = ходоод

     gastritis: inflammation of the stomach = ходоодны салст бүрхэвчийн үрэвсэл {гастритом}

enter/o: intestine = гэдэс

     gastroenteritis : inflammation of the lining membrane of the stomach and the intestines
          = ходоод ба нарийн гэдэсний шрэвсэл {гастроэнтерит}

col/o: large intestine (colon) = бүдүүн гэдэс

     colitis: inflammation of the colon (large intestine) = бүдүүн гэдэсний үрэвсэл {колит}

proct/o: anus, rectum = хошного, хошногоны нүх, хошногоны амсар

     proctitis: inflammation of the anus and rectum = шулуун гэдэсний үрэвсэл {проктитис}
     proctologist: specialist of the diseases of the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon
          = шулуун гэдэсний эмч {проктолог}

hepat/o: liver = элэг

     hepatitis: inflammation of the liver
          = элэгний үрэвсэл, хэпатит {гепатит, воспаление печени}
     hepatomegaly: enlargement of the liver = элэгний томролт {гепатомегалия}

nephr/o, ren/e: kidney = бөөр

     nephrosis: noninflammatory disease of the kidneys affecting function of the nephrons
          = {нефрозис}
     renal artery: two branches of the abdominal aorta, each supplies one of the kidneys
          = {почечной артерии}

orchid/o: testicle (testis) = төмсөг

     Testis is the plural form (more than one) of testicle. At the end of this section, there is more explanation of the rules for making plurals with medical terms.

     orchidectomy: surgical excision (removal) of a testis or both testes
          – also called orchiectomy
          = төмсөгийг мэс заслын аргаар авах {орчидектоми}

oophor/o: ovary = өндгөвч

     oophorectomy: the surgical removal of an ovary
          – also called ovariectomy
          = өндгөвчийг мэс заслын аргаар авах {тепловое, яичниковая невралгия}

hyster/o, metr/o: uterus = умай

     hysterectomy: surgical removal of the uterus
          = савыг тайрч авах, умайг тайрч авах мэс засал {гистерэктомия}
     endometritis: inflammation of the endometrium
          = умайн салст бүрхүүлийн үрэвсэл {эндометриты}
     endometrium = эндометр, умайн салст бүрхэвч, умайн дотровч {эндометрия}

salping/o: fallopian tubes = Фаллопиевын гуурс

     salpingectomy: surgical removal (excision) of a fallopian tube
          = умайн нуурсан хоолойг авах мэс засал {салпинджектоми}

derm/o, dermat/o: skin = арьс

     dermatitis: inflammation of the skin – also called dermitis = арьсны үрэвсэл {дерматит}
     hypodermic: under the skin = арьсан дорх{подкожной}
          Example: hypodermic needle = арьсан доор тавьдаг зүү

mamm/o, mast/o: breast = хөх

     mammography: X-ray examination of the breasts for early detection of cancer
          = хөхний рентген шинжилгээ {маммография}
     mastectomy: surgical removal of all or part of the breast and
          sometimes lymph nodes and muscles
          = хөхний булчирхай хагарах {мастэктомия}

oste/o: bone = яс

     osteoporosis: weakening of bones in the body caused by lack of calcium in the bones
          = яс сийрэгжих {остеопороз}

cyst/o: bladder = давсаг

     cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder
          = цистит, давсагны үрэвсэл {воспаление мочевого пузыря, цистит}

rhin/o: nose = хамар

     rhinitis (runny nose!): inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose
          = хамрын үрэвсэл {ринит, сопение, насморк}

phleb/o, ven/o: veins = хураагуур судас

     phlebitis: inflammation of a vein
          = венийн судасны судлал {флебит, воспаление вены}
     phlebotomy: the removal of blood from a vein mostly for transfusion or diagnosis
          = цус ханах, хураагуур судсыг нээх {вскрытие вен}

cardi/o: heart = зүрх

     electrocardiogram (ECG): the record of the electrical changes during a heartbeat
          = зүрхний цахилгаан бичлэг, цахилгаанаар зүрхний бичлэг хийх
               {кардиограмма, эле́ктрокардиогра́фия}

The record (or tracing) of an electrocardiogram (ECG)

pneum/o, pulm/o: lung = уушги

     pneumonitis: inflammation of the lungs = уушгины үрэвсэл {пневмонит}
     pulmonologist: specialist in the anatomy, physiology, and diseases of the lungs
          = уушигны эмч

hemat/o, hem/o: blood = цус

     hematologist: specialist that deals with the blood and blood-forming organs
          = цусны эмч
     hemoglobin: protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells = гемоглобин


Review

rootmeaningexamples
arthr/ojointarthritis
stomat/omouthstomatitis
dent/oteethdentist
gloss/o, lingu/otongueglossitis, lingual nerve
gingiv/ogumsgingivitis
encephal/obrainencephalitis
gastr/ostomachgastritis
enter/ointestinegastroenteritis
col/olarge intestine (colon)colitis
proct/oanus / rectumproctologist
hepat/oliverhepatitis
nephr/o, ren/ekidneynephrosis, renal artery
orchid/otesticle (testis)orchidectomy
oophor/oovaryoophorectomy
hyster/o, metr/outerushysterectomy, endometritis
salping/ofallopian tubessalpingectomy
derm/o, dermat/oskindermatitis, hypodermic
mamm/o, mast/obreastmammography, mastectomy
oste/oboneosteoporosis
cardi/oheartelectrocardiogram (ECG)
cyst/obladdercystitis
rhin/onoserhinitis
phleb/o, ven/oveinsphlebitis, phlebotomy
pneum/o, pulm/olungpneumonitis, pulmonologist
hemat/o, hem/obloodhematologist, hemoglobin

New Words:
  • anterior: front
Medical Terms
  • arthritis: inflammation of a joint
  • stomatitis: inflammation of the mouth
  • dentist : doctor who is a teeth specialist
  • glossitis: inflammation of the tongue
  • lingual nerve: nerve for the anterior two thirds of the tongue
  • gingivitis: inflammation of the gums
  • encephalitis: inflammation of the brain
  • gastritis: inflammation of the stomach
  • gastroenteritis: inflammation of the stomach lining and intestines
  • colitis: inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
  • proctitis: inflammation of the anus and rectum
  • proctologist: specialist of the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon
  • hepatitis: inflammation of the liver
  • hepatomegaly: enlargement of the liver
  • nephrosis: noninflammatory disease of the kidneys affecting the nephrons
  • renal artery: two branches of the abdominal aorta, each supplies one of the kidneys
  • orchidectomy, orchiectomy: surgical excision (removal) of a testis or both testes
  • oophorectomy: the surgical removal of an ovary – also called ovariectomy
  • hysterectomy: surgical removal of the uterus
  • endometritis: inflammation of the endometrium
  • salpingectomy: surgical removal (excision) of a fallopian tube
  • dermatitis: inflammation of the skin – also called dermitis
  • hypodermic: under the skin
  • mammography: X-ray of the breasts for early detection of cancer
  • mastectomy: surgical removal of all or part of the breast
  • osteoporosis: weakening of bones in the body
  • electrocardiogram (ECG): the record of the electrical changes during a heartbeat
  • cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder
  • rhinitis: inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose (runny nose!)
  • phlebitis: inflammation of a vein
  • phlebotomy: the removal of blood from a vein
  • pneumonitis: inflammation of the lungs
  • pulmonologist: specialist of the lungs
  • hematologist: specialist of the blood and blood-forming organs
  • hemoglobin: protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells
Pronunciation Practice
= anterior [an·te·ri·or]
= arthritis [ar·thri·tis]
= stomatitis [sto·ma·ti·tis]
= dentist [den·tist]
= glossitis [glos·si·tis]
= lingual [lin·gual]
= gingivitis [gin·gi·vi·tis]
= encephalitis [en·ceph·a·li·tis]
= gastritis [gas·tri·tis]
= gastroenteritis [gas·tro·en·ter·i·tis]
= colitis [co·li·tis]
= proctitis [proc·ti·tis]
= proctologist [proc·tol·o·gist]
= hepatitis [hep·a·ti·tis]
= hepatomegaly [he·pa·to·meg·a·ly]
= nephrosis [ne·phro·sis]
= renal [re·nal]
= orchidectomy [or·chi·dec·to·my]
= orchiectomy [or·chi·ec·to·my]
= oophorectomy [o·o·pho·rec·to·my]
= ovariectomy [o·va·ri·ec·to·my]
= hysterectomy [hys·ter·ec·to·my]
= endometritis [en·do·me·tri·tis]
= salpingectomy [sal·pin·gec·to·my]
= dermatitis [der·ma·ti·tis]
= dermitis [der·mi·tis]
= hypodermic [hy·po·der·mic]
= mammography [mam·mog·ra·phy]
= mastectomy [mas·tec·to·my]
= osteoporosis [os·teo·po·ro·sis]
= electrocardiogram [e·lec·tro·car·dio·gram]
= cystitis [cys·ti·tis]
= rhinitis [rhi·ni·tis]
= phlebitis [phle·bi·tis]
= phlebotomy [phle·bot·o·my]
= pneumonitis [pneu·mo·ni·tis]
= pulmonologist [pul·mo·nol·o·gist]
= hematologist [he·ma·tol·o·gy]
= hemoglobin [he·mo·glo·bin]


with exercises

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Chapter 2: Basics
Some Useful Prefixes
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Chapter 3: Suffixes
Suffix Linking