Beginner Medical English

A Reference Handbook for Mongolian Students and Healthcare Professionals (DOWNLOAD)

Medical Terminology

ONLINE LESSONS for Healthcare Professionals in Mongolia

Human Anatomy and Physiology

by Dr. Bruce Forciea, 2012 (DOWNLOAD)

Cells: Molecules and Mechanisms

University Cell and Molecular Biology textbook (DOWNLOAD)

Thursday, January 31, 2013

MT-3: Suffix Linking

Quick Links to Chapter 3: Suffixes Lessons
Suffix Linking
Noun Suffixes
More Noun Suffixes
Adjective Suffixes
Rules for Making Plural Suffixes

3: SUFFIXES:
Suffix Linking

Just to review, a suffix is added to the end of a word root or combining form to change the meaning of a medical word. If you change the suffix, you change the meaning of the word.

dermat/o (skin) + -logy (study of) = dermatology (study of the the skin)
dermat/o (skin) + -itis (inflammation) = dermatitis (inflammation of the skin)
dermat/o (skin) + -logist (specialist) = dermatologist (doctor who specializes in the skin)

Suffixes are also used to show singular and plural, as well as other parts of grammar.

Note: Suffixes that begin with a vowel are linked with a word root, suffixes that begin with a consonant are linked with a combining form

cardi/o (heart) + -megaly (enlarge) = cardiomegaly (enlargement of the heart)
suffix starts with a consonant “m”, so keep the “o” in the combining form

cardi/o (heart) + -ac (pertaining to) = cardiac (pertaining to the heart)
suffix starts with a vowel “a”, so drop the “o” in the combining form


Previous Lesson
Chapter 2: Basics
And Some Useful Combining Forms
Next Lesson
Chapter 3: Suffixes
Noun Suffixes

Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Hospital and Health Facility Emergency Exercises

DOWNLOAD BOOK

Preface

Practice is crucial to prepare for emergencies. Health organizations may have preparedness and contingency plans yet only when these plans are put to a test through drills can managers determine gaps and areas that needed strengthening. Emergency exercises are one of the best ways to test emergency plans. Hospital drills are essential components to ensure that health professionals are prepared to face emergencies and disasters.

This resource aims to guide hospital management in preparing for and conducting exercises for emergencies and disasters . After introducing basic principles in emergency exercises, it proceeds into describing the process of planning for and conducting them . It presents five exercise types: orientation, drill, tabletop, functional and full-scale. Emergency exercises are not just one time annual events but must be an essential component of a comprehensive emergency response plan.

The document was developed through a review of relevant literature and consultation with hospital directors and emergency exercise managers. A draft was presented before emergency preparedness and response experts at the regional office. Resource materials, examples and forms were included to provide a comprehensive overview of the emergency exercise process.

Hospital managers and supervisors will find this document useful in preparing for their emergency drills and preparedness plans. The document will also provide good information to disaster preparedness and risk reduction advocates and trainers especially those who are working within the health sector.

This publication is a part of a series of tools and guides for safe hospitals campaign that focus on health facility preparedness, risk reduction, emergency planning and management. The regional implementation of the global safe hospitals campaign was supported by the European Commission Humanitarian Aid department.

Executive summary

As part of the World Health Organization’s Hospitals Safe from Disasters campaign, Guidance Materials: Hospital and Health Facility Emergency Exercises was written with the goal of aiding hospital and health facility emergency management committees in preparing for and conducting exercises for emergencies and disasters. It was developed through a review of relevant literature and consultation with emergency exercise managers. The discussed materials, examples and forms adapted were selected with the hope of providing a brief but comprehensive overview of the emergency exercise process. Although there are common guiding principles in the execution of hospital emergency exercises, this document takes into consideration that each institution has unique circumstances. Thus, this document is not intended to serve as definitive guidelines—rather, it is meant to provide a starting point for hospital emergency management committees in developing emergency exercise plans customized to their particular needs and setting.

Emergency exercises are activities done to practise, develop, test and improve plans and procedures on how a hospital or health facility will respond to emergencies and disasters . This collection of plans and procedures is also known as the hospital or health facility emergency response plan. The emergency response plan is a prerequisite for conducting emergency exercises—for without the plan, there would be nothing to exercise.

There are five commonly used types of exercises: (1) orientation, (2) drill, (3) tabletop, (4) functional and (5) full-scale.

Each exercise type has its own strengths and limitations. More complex exercises more closely simulate reality; however, they also are more difficult to organize and require more resources. The choice of exercise type to be used will depend on the objectives for conducting the exercise.

A general emergency exercise process is provided to outline the four phases of preparing for and conducting exercises, and lists individual steps for each activity. Tool guides and example forms are provided at the end of each section. The four phases of the process are (1) pre-planning, (2) planning, (3) exercising and (4) post-exercise.

After going through the general exercise process, each type of exercise is discussed. Briefly, (1) an orientation is an informal seminar discussion on the emergency response plan or its particular parts; (2) a drill is an operational activity for maintaining and developing skills in a single-response procedure; (3) a tabletop exercise is an informal dialogue in which simulated emergency situations are discussed by officials with emergency management responsibilities to resolve problems based on the emergency plans; (4) a functional exercise is a real-time, interactive emergency simulation conducted in the emergency operations centre, coming just short of deploying personnel to an emergency site; and (5) a full-scale exercise, also known as a field exercise, is an interactive activity that includes real-time conduction and actual deployment of resources in response to a fully simulated emergency. Exercise type-specific tool guides are also provided at the end of each section.

These different exercise types are then discussed with reference to their potential use in the context of a comprehensive exercise programme. This is a process that makes use of the five exercise types in a progressively complex fashion until mastery of the emergency response is achieved.

At the end of the document, annexes attached include a discussion listing several elements of a hospital emergency response plan (Annex 1), as well as a listing of key definitions (Annex 2), which are useful to review for this guide.

Thursday, January 24, 2013

MT-2: And Some Useful Combining Forms

Quick Links to Chapter 2: Basics Lessons
Where Did the Medical Words Come From?
Parts, Parts and More Parts
Useful Suffixes
Some Useful Prefixes
And Some Useful Combining Forms

2: BASICS:
And Some Useful Combining Forms

Before we start studying systems of the body, here are a few word roots of the major organs in the body.

arthr/o: joint

     arthritis: inflammation of a joint

stomat/o: mouth = ам

     stomatitis: inflammation of the mouth = стоматит, амны салстын үрэвсэл {стоматит}

dent/o: teeth = шүднүүд

     dentist : doctor who is a teeth specialist = шүдний эмч {стоматолог}

gloss/o, lingu/o: tongue = хэл

     glossitis: inflammation of the tongue = {глоссит, воспаление языка}
     lingual nerve: branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve for the anterior (front) two thirds of the tongue and responds to pressure, touch, and temperature = хэлний мэдрэл {лингвального нервных}

As we already discussed, sometimes there is more than one word root for the same organ. For example, "gloss/o" and "lingu/o". Usually, one is from the Greek and one from Latin. You need to know both roots because you may see either of them used in different medical terms.

gingiv/o: gums = буйл

     gingivitis: inflammation of the gums = буйлны үрэвсэл {гингивит, воспаление дёсен}

encephal/o: brain = тархи, уураг тархи

     The combining form “cephal/o” means head, and the prefix “en-” means inside, so together they mean “inside the head” or the brain.

     encephalitis: inflammation of the brain = тархи нугасны үрэвсэл {энцефалит}

gastr/o: stomach = ходоод

     gastritis: inflammation of the stomach = ходоодны салст бүрхэвчийн үрэвсэл {гастритом}

enter/o: intestine = гэдэс

     gastroenteritis : inflammation of the lining membrane of the stomach and the intestines
          = ходоод ба нарийн гэдэсний шрэвсэл {гастроэнтерит}

col/o: large intestine (colon) = бүдүүн гэдэс

     colitis: inflammation of the colon (large intestine) = бүдүүн гэдэсний үрэвсэл {колит}

proct/o: anus, rectum = хошного, хошногоны нүх, хошногоны амсар

     proctitis: inflammation of the anus and rectum = шулуун гэдэсний үрэвсэл {проктитис}
     proctologist: specialist of the diseases of the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon
          = шулуун гэдэсний эмч {проктолог}

hepat/o: liver = элэг

     hepatitis: inflammation of the liver
          = элэгний үрэвсэл, хэпатит {гепатит, воспаление печени}
     hepatomegaly: enlargement of the liver = элэгний томролт {гепатомегалия}

nephr/o, ren/e: kidney = бөөр

     nephrosis: noninflammatory disease of the kidneys affecting function of the nephrons
          = {нефрозис}
     renal artery: two branches of the abdominal aorta, each supplies one of the kidneys
          = {почечной артерии}

orchid/o: testicle (testis) = төмсөг

     Testis is the plural form (more than one) of testicle. At the end of this section, there is more explanation of the rules for making plurals with medical terms.

     orchidectomy: surgical excision (removal) of a testis or both testes
          – also called orchiectomy
          = төмсөгийг мэс заслын аргаар авах {орчидектоми}

oophor/o: ovary = өндгөвч

     oophorectomy: the surgical removal of an ovary
          – also called ovariectomy
          = өндгөвчийг мэс заслын аргаар авах {тепловое, яичниковая невралгия}

hyster/o, metr/o: uterus = умай

     hysterectomy: surgical removal of the uterus
          = савыг тайрч авах, умайг тайрч авах мэс засал {гистерэктомия}
     endometritis: inflammation of the endometrium
          = умайн салст бүрхүүлийн үрэвсэл {эндометриты}
     endometrium = эндометр, умайн салст бүрхэвч, умайн дотровч {эндометрия}

salping/o: fallopian tubes = Фаллопиевын гуурс

     salpingectomy: surgical removal (excision) of a fallopian tube
          = умайн нуурсан хоолойг авах мэс засал {салпинджектоми}

derm/o, dermat/o: skin = арьс

     dermatitis: inflammation of the skin – also called dermitis = арьсны үрэвсэл {дерматит}
     hypodermic: under the skin = арьсан дорх{подкожной}
          Example: hypodermic needle = арьсан доор тавьдаг зүү

mamm/o, mast/o: breast = хөх

     mammography: X-ray examination of the breasts for early detection of cancer
          = хөхний рентген шинжилгээ {маммография}
     mastectomy: surgical removal of all or part of the breast and
          sometimes lymph nodes and muscles
          = хөхний булчирхай хагарах {мастэктомия}

oste/o: bone = яс

     osteoporosis: weakening of bones in the body caused by lack of calcium in the bones
          = яс сийрэгжих {остеопороз}

cyst/o: bladder = давсаг

     cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder
          = цистит, давсагны үрэвсэл {воспаление мочевого пузыря, цистит}

rhin/o: nose = хамар

     rhinitis (runny nose!): inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose
          = хамрын үрэвсэл {ринит, сопение, насморк}

phleb/o, ven/o: veins = хураагуур судас

     phlebitis: inflammation of a vein
          = венийн судасны судлал {флебит, воспаление вены}
     phlebotomy: the removal of blood from a vein mostly for transfusion or diagnosis
          = цус ханах, хураагуур судсыг нээх {вскрытие вен}

cardi/o: heart = зүрх

     electrocardiogram (ECG): the record of the electrical changes during a heartbeat
          = зүрхний цахилгаан бичлэг, цахилгаанаар зүрхний бичлэг хийх
               {кардиограмма, эле́ктрокардиогра́фия}

The record (or tracing) of an electrocardiogram (ECG)

pneum/o, pulm/o: lung = уушги

     pneumonitis: inflammation of the lungs = уушгины үрэвсэл {пневмонит}
     pulmonologist: specialist in the anatomy, physiology, and diseases of the lungs
          = уушигны эмч

hemat/o, hem/o: blood = цус

     hematologist: specialist that deals with the blood and blood-forming organs
          = цусны эмч
     hemoglobin: protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells = гемоглобин


Review

rootmeaningexamples
arthr/ojointarthritis
stomat/omouthstomatitis
dent/oteethdentist
gloss/o, lingu/otongueglossitis, lingual nerve
gingiv/ogumsgingivitis
encephal/obrainencephalitis
gastr/ostomachgastritis
enter/ointestinegastroenteritis
col/olarge intestine (colon)colitis
proct/oanus / rectumproctologist
hepat/oliverhepatitis
nephr/o, ren/ekidneynephrosis, renal artery
orchid/otesticle (testis)orchidectomy
oophor/oovaryoophorectomy
hyster/o, metr/outerushysterectomy, endometritis
salping/ofallopian tubessalpingectomy
derm/o, dermat/oskindermatitis, hypodermic
mamm/o, mast/obreastmammography, mastectomy
oste/oboneosteoporosis
cardi/oheartelectrocardiogram (ECG)
cyst/obladdercystitis
rhin/onoserhinitis
phleb/o, ven/oveinsphlebitis, phlebotomy
pneum/o, pulm/olungpneumonitis, pulmonologist
hemat/o, hem/obloodhematologist, hemoglobin

New Words:
  • anterior: front
Medical Terms
  • arthritis: inflammation of a joint
  • stomatitis: inflammation of the mouth
  • dentist : doctor who is a teeth specialist
  • glossitis: inflammation of the tongue
  • lingual nerve: nerve for the anterior two thirds of the tongue
  • gingivitis: inflammation of the gums
  • encephalitis: inflammation of the brain
  • gastritis: inflammation of the stomach
  • gastroenteritis: inflammation of the stomach lining and intestines
  • colitis: inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
  • proctitis: inflammation of the anus and rectum
  • proctologist: specialist of the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon
  • hepatitis: inflammation of the liver
  • hepatomegaly: enlargement of the liver
  • nephrosis: noninflammatory disease of the kidneys affecting the nephrons
  • renal artery: two branches of the abdominal aorta, each supplies one of the kidneys
  • orchidectomy, orchiectomy: surgical excision (removal) of a testis or both testes
  • oophorectomy: the surgical removal of an ovary – also called ovariectomy
  • hysterectomy: surgical removal of the uterus
  • endometritis: inflammation of the endometrium
  • salpingectomy: surgical removal (excision) of a fallopian tube
  • dermatitis: inflammation of the skin – also called dermitis
  • hypodermic: under the skin
  • mammography: X-ray of the breasts for early detection of cancer
  • mastectomy: surgical removal of all or part of the breast
  • osteoporosis: weakening of bones in the body
  • electrocardiogram (ECG): the record of the electrical changes during a heartbeat
  • cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder
  • rhinitis: inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose (runny nose!)
  • phlebitis: inflammation of a vein
  • phlebotomy: the removal of blood from a vein
  • pneumonitis: inflammation of the lungs
  • pulmonologist: specialist of the lungs
  • hematologist: specialist of the blood and blood-forming organs
  • hemoglobin: protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells
Pronunciation Practice
= anterior [an·te·ri·or]
= arthritis [ar·thri·tis]
= stomatitis [sto·ma·ti·tis]
= dentist [den·tist]
= glossitis [glos·si·tis]
= lingual [lin·gual]
= gingivitis [gin·gi·vi·tis]
= encephalitis [en·ceph·a·li·tis]
= gastritis [gas·tri·tis]
= gastroenteritis [gas·tro·en·ter·i·tis]
= colitis [co·li·tis]
= proctitis [proc·ti·tis]
= proctologist [proc·tol·o·gist]
= hepatitis [hep·a·ti·tis]
= hepatomegaly [he·pa·to·meg·a·ly]
= nephrosis [ne·phro·sis]
= renal [re·nal]
= orchidectomy [or·chi·dec·to·my]
= orchiectomy [or·chi·ec·to·my]
= oophorectomy [o·o·pho·rec·to·my]
= ovariectomy [o·va·ri·ec·to·my]
= hysterectomy [hys·ter·ec·to·my]
= endometritis [en·do·me·tri·tis]
= salpingectomy [sal·pin·gec·to·my]
= dermatitis [der·ma·ti·tis]
= dermitis [der·mi·tis]
= hypodermic [hy·po·der·mic]
= mammography [mam·mog·ra·phy]
= mastectomy [mas·tec·to·my]
= osteoporosis [os·teo·po·ro·sis]
= electrocardiogram [e·lec·tro·car·dio·gram]
= cystitis [cys·ti·tis]
= rhinitis [rhi·ni·tis]
= phlebitis [phle·bi·tis]
= phlebotomy [phle·bot·o·my]
= pneumonitis [pneu·mo·ni·tis]
= pulmonologist [pul·mo·nol·o·gist]
= hematologist [he·ma·tol·o·gy]
= hemoglobin [he·mo·glo·bin]


with exercises

Previous Lesson
Chapter 2: Basics
Some Useful Prefixes
Next Lesson
Chapter 3: Suffixes
Suffix Linking

Tuesday, January 22, 2013

NEWS: Video Game - Immune Attack

Here is a great game to help you learn English about the immune system.

You must navigate a nanobot through a 3D environment of blood vessels and connective tissue in an attempt to save an ailing patient by retraining her non-functional immune cells. Along the way, you will learn about the biological processes that enable macrophages and neutrophils – white blood cells – to detect and fight infections.

About Immune Attack

Immune Attack is educational computer game about the immune system and the cells involved in fighting a bacterial infection. The content is geared for senior level high school biology and first year university biology.

The game’s storyline revolves around a girl who is confined indoors because she has a present yet nonfunctional immune system. Without active immune cells, exposure to bacteria and other pathogens in the outside world would quickly kill her. With the help of nanotechnology, users must activate specific immune cells so her body can fight infection and allow her to live a normal life.

To play the game, users control a microscopic robot (the nanobot explorer) to navigate through a first‐person 3D body, completing a series of increasingly sophisticated missions to detect a bacterial infection and activate the appropriate defensive immune cells. These stepwise missions follow the actual biological process that occurs during an infection and how immune cells are stimulated to kill the bacteria.

Learning Objectives:

By working through the missions in Immune Attack, students will gain direct knowledge on the following functions of the immune system:
  1. The role of macrophages and neutrophils in the immune system, including:
    • that they are the body’s first responders to infection
    • that they fight bacterial infections
    • that they “eat” bacteria (phagocytosis)
  2. The process of transmigration of monocytes, including:
    • that monocytes flow in the blood vessels
    • that selectins help monocytes “slow down”
    • that ICAMs help monocytes to “stop”
    • that ICAMs help monocytes to move through the blood vessel wall and into the connective tissue
    • that once a monocyte has entered the connective tissue, it is known as a macrophage
  3. How the body uses chemical signals to find the site of infection, including:
    • that macrophages and neutrophils find the site of infection by following a chemical trail
    • that macrophages follow a chemical trail of C3a
  4. How the body uses markers to recognize enemies, including:
    • how macrophages and neutrophils recognize LPS as an indicator of bacteria
  5. How macrophages “call” neutrophils for “back up”:
    • by releasing a chemical signal of CXCL8 molecules

Word List:
  • pathogen: a thing that causes disease
  • nanotechnology: the branch of technology that deals with structures that are less than 100 nanometres long.
  • macrophage: a large cell that is able to remove harmful substances from the body, and is found in blood and tissue
  • neutrophil: the white blood cell doing most of the work in collecting and taking in stray and foreign matter
  • phagocytosis: the engulfing (to surround) and usually the destruction of particulate matter by phagocytes
  • transmigration: movement of leukocytes through the endothelium
  • monocyte: a type of large white blood cell with a simple round nucleus that can remove harmful substances from the body
  • selectin: any of a family of sugar-binding lectins that are found on the surface of cells (as endothelial cells and white blood cells) and that promote their adhesion to other cells and mediate their migration to sites of inflammation
  • ICAM: Intercellular Adhesion Molecules
  • C3a: stimulates mast cell degranulation, thus triggering an immune response.
  • LPS: Lipopolysaccharides, and act as endotoxins and elicit strong immune responses
  • CXCL8: Interleukin 8 (also labeled IL-8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells
Pronunciation practice MP3
= pathogen [path·o·gen]
= nanotechnology [na·no·tech·nol·o·gy]
= macrophage [mac·ro·phage]
= neutrophil [neu·tro·phil]
= bacterial [bac·te·ri·al]
= infection [in·fec·tion]
= phagocytosis [pha·go·cy·to·sis]
= monocyte[mo·no·cyte]
= selectin [se·lec·tin]

Thursday, January 17, 2013

MT-2: Some Useful Prefixes

Quick Links to Chapter 2: Basics Lessons
Where Did the Medical Words Come From?
Parts, Parts and More Parts
Useful Suffixes
Some Useful Prefixes
And Some Useful Combining Forms

2: BASICS:
Some Useful Prefixes

Prefixes come “pre-” meaning before. Here are a few very useful prefixes:

a-, an- = without, none

     apnea: not breathing (usually during sleep) = амьсал зогсох{одышка}
          -pnea: breathing
     anemia: “no” blood, low hemoglobin or red blood cells or both = цус багадалт {анемии}
          -emia: blood condition

endo- = within

     endovascular: within a blood vessel
          vascul/o: blood vessel = судас {кровеносных сосудов}

epi- = above, on

     epidermis: above the dermis
          = арьсны өвчин {эпидермисе}
          dermis: middle layer of the skin
               = {дермис}

ex- = out

Exterior (outside) is a word you might already know. A medical term you might use is:

     excision: to cut out
          = зүсэг, тайралт {обрезание}

exo- = out

Biologist describe insects such as grasshoppers and cockroaches with a hard shell instead of an internal skeleton as having an “exoskeleton”, or an “outside” skeleton.

     exocytosis: release of substances (out) by a cell = эсийн гаднахь үйл явц
          cyt/o: cell

hyper- = excessive, above, more than normal

A very common medical term that many people know is hypertension (high blood pressure = цусны даралт ихсэх). Another example is:

     hyperglycemia: high blood sugar = цусанд саахрын хэмжээ ихсэх

hypo- = deficient, below (when used when talking about a body part), under, less than normal

     hypogastric: below the stomach
     hypodermic: below the skin

Note: Remember, it is hypodermic, not hyperdermic because hyper- means “over, above”.

in- = into, in

Other common words using the prefix in- are inside, interior, and inset.

     incision: cut into

Note: Don't confuse incision with excision. Excision means to cut out, not into.

     micro- = small

Every student might have used a microscope when studying living things in school.

     microbiology: study of very small living things = микробиологи, бичил амин судлал

macro- = large, great

If you were a photographer, you might have a macro lens, a lens that takes pictures very close to an object so that it appears very large in the photograph.

     macrocyte: large red blood cell = цус багадалтын үед илрэх асар том улаан эс

mega- = enlarged, large, larger

     megacolon: enlarged colon = бүдүүн гэдэс өргөсөх төрөлхийн өвчин {мегадвоеточие}

peri- = surrounding, around

Again in mathematics, a student might be asked to measure the perimeter, the measurement around something.

     pericardium: membrane that surrounds the heart
          -um: structure

pro- = before, forward

     prognosis: future of medical condition = тавилан {прогнозирование}

re- = back, backward, again

Students might retake (take again) a test, or return (turn back) something at a store. Other common words that use this prefix are recharge, reborn, recall, repaint, redo, and refund.

     resection: where an an organ is “cut back” or removed = огтлон авах, тайрч авах

retro- = behind

In American slang, someone might describe something as being “retro”, meaning old or behind the times.

     retrocardiac: behind the heart

sub- = below, under

Again, here is a prefix that you might have seen before in words such as submarine (under the water). An example in medicine is:

     subhepatic: pertaining to below/under the liver
          sub- :below, under
          hepat/o: liver
          -ic: pertaining to

trans- = across, through, over, or beyond

Common words that a person might already know are transfusion (transfer of blood from one person to another “across”) and transplant (put or “plant” from one place to another).

     transurethral: through the urethra
          urethr/o: urethra = шээсний сүв {уретры}

Transurethral resection of the prostate (commonly known as a TURP) is a urological operation. It is performed by using a lumen catheter through the urethra and removing tissue from the prostate. This is considered the most effective treatment for BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia).


Review

PrefixmeaningExamples
a-, an-without, noneapnea, anemia
endo-withinendovascular
epi-above, onepidermis
ex-outexcision
exo-outexocytosis
hyper-above, more than normal, excessivehyperglycemia
hypo-below, under, less than normal, deficienthypogastric
in-into, inincision
micro-smallmicrobiology
macro-largemacrocyte
mega-enlargedmegacolon
peri-surrounding, aroundpericardium
pro-before, forwardprognosis
re-back, backward, againresection
retro-behindretrocardiac
sub-below, undersubhepatic
trans-across, throughtransurethral

More definitions:
  • excessive: too much, more than normal
  • deficient: not enough, below normal
  • enlarged: to become larger than normal
Medical Terminology
  • apnea: not breathing (usually during sleep)
  • anemia: “no” blood, low hemoglobin/red blood cells/both
  • endovascular: within a blood vessel
  • epidermis: above the dermis
  • excision: to cut out
  • exocytosis: release of substances (out) by a cell
  • hypertension: high blood pressure
  • hyperglycemia: high blood sugar
  • hypogastric: below the stomach
  • hypodermic: below the skin
  • incision: cut into
  • microbiology: study of very small living things
  • macrocyte: large red blood cell
  • megacolon: enlarged colon
  • pericardium: membrane that surrounds the heart
  • prognosis: future of medical condition
  • resection: an an organ is “cut back” or removed
  • retrocardiac: behind the heart
  • subhepatic: pertaining to below/under the liver
  • transfusion: transfer of blood from one person to another “across”
  • transurethral: through the urethra
    Pronunciation Practice:
    = apnea [ap·nea]
    = anemia [a·ne·mia]
    = epidermis [epi·der·mis]
    = excision [ex·ci·sion]
    = exocytosis [exo·cy·to·sis]
    = hypertension [hy·per·ten·sion]
    = hyperglycemia [hy·per·gly·ce·mia]
    = hypogastric [hy·po·gas·tric]
    = hypodermic [hy·po·der·mic]
    = incision [in·ci·sion]
    = microbiology [mi·cro·bi·ol·o·gy]
    = macrocyte [mac·ro·cyte]
    = megacolon [me·ga·co·lon]
    = pericardium [pe·ri·car·di·um]
    = prognosis [prog·no·sis]
    = resection [re·sec·tion]
    = subhepatic [sub·he·pat·ic]
    = transfusion [trans·fu·sion]
    = transurethral [trans·u·re·thral]


    with exercises

    Previous Lesson
    Useful Suffixes
    Next Lesson
    And Some Useful Combining Forms

    Tuesday, January 15, 2013

    MT-2: Useful Suffixes

    Quick Links to Chapter 2: Basics Lessons
    Where Did the Medical Words Come From?
    Parts, Parts and More Parts
    Useful Suffixes
    Some Useful Prefixes
    And Some Useful Combining Forms

    2: BASICS:
    Useful Suffixes

    Here are some frequently used suffixes used to make up many medical terms.

    -ac, -al = pertaining to, belonging to, referring to

    Some words you already know have -ac like maniac; mania (too much excitement) + ac. Examples of -al words are national; nation + al, tropical; tropic + al, and personal; person + al. In medicine we have:

         cardiac: pertaining to the heart = зүрхний {сердечная}
         renal: pertaining to the kidney = бөөрний {почечной}

    More examples: anal (anus), fecal (feces), fetal (fetus), viral (virus), dental (dent - tooth)

    -ectomy = to cut out (excise), surgically remove

         appendectomy: removal of the appendix = мухар олгойг авах {удаление аппендицита}

    -emia = blood, usually a diseased condition of the blood, blood condition

         anemia: “no” blood, low hemoglobin, red blood cells, or both = цус багадалт {анемии}

    -ic, -ical = pertaining to, having to do with

    Some -ic words you might already know: arabic (arab), atomic (atom), metric (meter), and nomadic (nomad). Medical (medicine), musical (music) and mechanical (machine) also use the -ical suffix ending. Some medical terminology examples are:

         gastric: pertaining to the stomach = ходоодны {желудочного}
         neurological: pertaining to nervous system = мэдрэлийн системийн {неврологические}

    -ion: process (action)

         excision: process of cutting out/removal of something

    Note: -sion ending can have a “zhun” pronunciation, like words television and vision, but sometimes it can also have a “shun” sound like tension and mission.

    -itis = inflammation

         appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix = мухар олгойн үрэвсэл {аппендицита}
              append/o, appendic/o = appendix

    Note: Mongolian (and sometimes Russian) translations are provided to help the student learn faster but should not be depended on – better to learn the English-English meaning.

    -logist: a person who specializes in something

         nephrologist: a doctor who specializes in the kidney and its diseases = бөөрний эмч

    -logy, -ology: study of, to deal with

         cardiology: study of the heart and the cardiovascular system
    = зүрхний өвчин судлал {кардиология}

    Note: -gy is pronounced like “jee” like in the words energy and allergy.

    -oma: tumor, mass, swelling

         hematoma: collection of blood in tissue caused by a blood vessel break = цусан бундуу
              hemat/o - blood

    -opsy: to look at, to see, process of viewing

         biopsy: process of viewing tissue = {биопсия}
              bio - life

    -osis: abnormal condition or process of some disease

         cyanosis: abnormal condition of blueness due to cold or low oxygen = хөхрөлт {синюха}
              cyan- - blue

    -ostomy: to make an opening or a "mouth"

         colostomy: make an opening in colon = бүдүүн гэдсэгд гуурс тавих {колостоми}
    colostomy showing the stoma and colostomy bag
         A surgeon creates an opening from the colon (section of the large intestine) to the surface of the body so that body waste can exit through a hole in the colon and through the wall of the abdomen to the skin. At this opening (stoma), a bag can be attached to collect body waste.

    -otomy, -tomy: incision of (cut into, through) something

         tracheotomy: incision through the neck into the trachea
    = мөгөөрсөн хоолойд мэс засал хийх
              trache/o – trachea = цагаан мөгөөрсөн хоолой {трахеи}

    Note: In most medical words, “ch” is usually pronounced like a “k” as in school, stomach, and chemistry

    -plasty: surgical repair

         rhinoplasty: surgical repair of the nose
              rhin/o - nose

    -rrhea: to flow, flowing from, discharge from

         diarrhea: frequent discharge of too much watery feces by the bowels, usually as a symptom of upset stomach or an infection = суулгалт {понос}
         menorrhea: menstrual flow = биеийн юм, сарын тэмдэг {меноррхеа}

    -scope: instrument to look or observe

         endoscope: instrument for examining inside = дотор эрхтний дуран {эндоскопа}
              end/o – within, inside

    -scopy: to look or observe

         endoscopy: visual examination within something = {эндоскопия}

    -graphy: recording an image

         mammography: imaging the breasts = хөхний рентген шинжилгээ {маммография}
              mamm/o = breasts
         electroencephalography: instrument for recording brain waves
    = тархины цахилгаан бичлэгийн шинжилгээ {электроэнцефалография}
              electr/o = electricity
              encephal/o = brain - [ en (inside) + cephal/o (head) ]

    -graph: machine (or instrument) that records

         electrocardiograph: machine to record electrical changes in the heart during a heartbeat
    = зүрхний бичлэгийн хэрэгсэл, цахилгаан зүрхний аппарат {электрокардиографа}

    -gram: the image

         mammogram: x-ray of the breast = хөхний рентген зураг {маммограмма}
         electroencephalogram = тархины цахилгаан бичлэг {электроэнцефалограмма}

    For example, mammography is the action of recording the x-ray, called mammogram. A recording of heart activity is called an electrocardiogram using an electrocardiograph. A recording of brain activity is an electroencephalogram.

    Other types of images:
         X-ray = рентгэн зураг {х лучей}
         CT scan (computer tomography) = компютер томограф {КТ-сканирование}
         MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging) = {МРТ сканировании}


    Review

    SuffixmeaningExamples
    -ac, -alpertaining tocardiac, renal
    -ectomyto cut out, surgically removeappendectomy
    -emiablood conditionanemia
    -ic, -icalpertaining togastric, neurological
    -ionprocess (action)excision
    -itisinflammationappendicitis
    -logistspecialize innephrologist
    -logystudy ofcardiology
    -omatumor, mass, swellinghematoma
    -opsyprocess of viewingbiopsy
    -osisabnormal conditioncyanosis
    -ostomyto make a "mouth"colostomy
    -otomy, -tomyto cut intotracheotomy
    -plastysurgical repairrhinoplasty
    -rrheadischarge fromdiarrhea
    -scopeinstrument to look or observeendoscope
    -scopyto look or observeendoscopy
    -graphyrecording an imagemammography
    -graphmachine that recordselectrocardiograph
    -gramthe imagemammogram
    More words:
    • pertaining: belong or related to = хамаарах
    • process: way of doing/making something (action)
    • specialize: become an expert in a particular area of medicine
    • tumor: not normal growth of tissue that has no function
    • mass: collection or growth of something solid, usually not normal
    • swelling: becomes larger usually due to inflammation
    • condition: how something is at present
    • abnormal: not normal
    • discharge: gas or a liquid flows somewhere
    • X-ray = рентгэн зураг {х лучей}
    • CT scan (computer tomography) = компютер томограф {КТ-сканирование}
    • MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging) = {МРТ сканировании}
    Medical Terminology
    • cardiac: pertaining to the heart
    • renal: pertaining to the kidney
    • appendectomy: removal of the appendix
    • anemia: low hemoglobin, red blood cells, or both
    • gastric: pertaining to the stomach
    • neurological: pertaining to the nervous system
    • excision: process (action) of cutting out/removing something
    • appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix
    • nephrologist: doctor who specializes in the kidney
    • cardiology: study of the heart and cardiovascular system
    • hematoma: swelling due to collection of blood
    • biopsy: process of viewing tissue (life)
    • cyanosis: abnormal condition of blueness
    • colostomy: make an opening in colon
    • rhinoplasty: surgical repair of the nose
    • diarrhea: frequent discharge of too much watery feces by the bowels
    • endoscope: instrument for examining within something
    • endoscopy: visual examination within something
    • tracheotomy: incision (through the neck) into the trachea
    • mammography: imaging the breasts
    • mammogram: x-ray of the breast
    • electroencephalography: machine to recording brain waves
    • electrocardiograph: instrument to record electrical changes in the heart
    Pronunciation Practice:
    = cardiac [car·di·ac]
    = renal [re·nal]
    = appendectomy [ap·pen·dec·to·my]
    = anemia [a·ne·mia]
    = gastric [gas·tric]
    = neurological [neu·rol·o·gy]
    = excision [ex·ci·sion]
    = appendicitis [ap·pen·di·ci·tis]
    = nephrologist [ne·phrol·o·gy]
    = cardiology [car·di·ol·o·gy]
    = hematoma [he·ma·to·ma]
    = biopsy [bi·op·sy]
    = cyanosis [cy·a·no·sis]
    = colostomy [co·los·to·my]
    = rhinoplasty [rhi·no·plas·ty]
    = diarrhea [di·ar·rhea]
    = endoscope [en·do·scope]
    = endoscopy [en·dos·co·py]
    = tracheotomy [tra·che·ot·o·my]
    = mammography [mam·mog·ra·phy]
    = mammogram [mam·mo·gram]
    = electroencephalography [elec·tro·en·ceph·a·log·ra·phy]
    = electrocardiograph [elec·tro·car·dio·graph]


    with exercises

    Previous Lesson
    Parts, parts, and more parts
    Next Lesson
    Some Useful Prefixes

    Tuesday, January 8, 2013

    MT-2: Parts, parts and more parts

    Quick Links to Chapter 2: Basics Lessons
    Where Did the Medical Words Come From?
    Parts, Parts and More Parts
    Useful Suffixes
    Some Useful Prefixes
    And Some Useful Combining Forms

    2: BASICS:
    Parts, Parts and More Parts

    Let's look at a medical term, nephrology, the study of the kidney and its diseases, and see how the parts go together.

    nephr + o + logy

    nephr = root meaning “kidney”
    o = combining vowel
    logy = suffix meaning “the study of”

    Note: Pronunciation: remember “ph” has the sound of “f”

    Now, in the introduction we said that medical terms can be made using different parts like word roots, suffixes and prefixes. For these Greek and Latin word roots, most of the time there is a combining vowel used between them. Usually it is the vowel “o” and is written like this /o when defining word roots in these lessons.

    dermat + “o” = dermat/o: skin
    cutane + “o” = cutane/o: skin
    nephr + “o” = nephr/o: kidney
    ren + “o” = ren/o: kidney

    word root + “o” = combining form

    A word root and its combining vowel are called the combining form.


    dermat/o + logy = dermatology: the study of the skin and its diseases

    But, if the suffix begins with a vowel, the combining vowel is not used. For example:

    gastr/o + itis = gastritis

    gastr/o: stomach
    -itis: inflammation = biological response (pain, heat, red, swelling) of tissues when harmed
    gastritis: inflammation of the stomach

    Because the suffix ending “-itis” begins with a vowel, the combining vowel is not used in the word gastritis, the inflammation of the stomach. Both suffixes and prefixes (which go at the beginning) use a hypen “-” when written alone.

    But, when combining two word roots where the second word root begins with a vowel, we keep the “o” between them. For example:


    osteo (combining form) + arthr (root) + itis (suffix)

    oste/o: bone
    arthr/o: joint
    -itis: inflammation
    osteoarthritis: inflammation of the bone and joints

    Here are a few more examples:

    word root and a suffix
    nephr/o: about the kidney
    + -oma: tumor
    = nephroma: tumor of the kidney

    prefix and a suffix
    dis-, dys-: bad, painful, difficult
    + -pnea: breathing
    = dyspnea: difficulty breathing

    or many combinations of word roots, prefixes and suffixes

    gastr/o: stomach
    + enter/o: intestines
    + -logy: study of
    = gastroenterology: study of stomach and intestines

    poly-: many, much
    + arthr/o: joint
    + -itis: inflammation
    = polyarthritis: inflammation of many joints


    Review
    • A combining form (word root + “o”) join a suffix that begins with a consonant
    • A word root joins together with a suffix that begins with a vowel
    • A combining form always joins a root with another root even if there is a vowel
    • Sometimes a medical word is just a prefix and suffix with no word root
    Vocabulary Review
    Hippocrates: Father of (Western) Medicine, Greek = Гиппократ
    Hippocratic Oath: doctor promise to help and not hurt = Гиппократын тангараг
    physician: doctor of medicine = эмч
    disease: illness affecting humans, animals or plants, often caused by infection = өвчин
    condition: an illness or a medical problem
    diagnosis: identifying the exact cause of an illness = оношилгоо /диагностики/
    treatment: something that is done to cure an illness or injury = эмчилгээ
    to pertain: belong or related to = хамаарах

    Prefixes:
    dis-, dys-: bad, painful, difficult
    poly-: many, much

    Word Roots:
    dermat/o: skin
    cutane/o: skin
    nephr/o: kidney
    ren/o: kidney
    gastr/o: stomach
    oste/o: bone
    arthr/o: joint
    enter/o: intestines

    Suffixes:
    -logy: study of
    -itis: inflammation
    -oma: tumor

    Medical Terminology:
    • inflammation: biological response (pain, heat, redness, swelling) of tissues when harmed = үрэвсэл {воспаление]
    • tumor: not normal tissue growth = хавдар {опухоль}
    • dermatitis: inflammation of the skin = биржрүү, тууралт {дерматит}
    • nephrology: study of the kidney = бөөрний өвчин судлал, бөөр судлал
    • cutaneous: pertaining to the skin = арьсны {кожным}
    • nephroma: tumor of the kidney = {нефрома}
    • renal: about the kidney = бөөрний {почечной}
    • gastritis: inflammation of the stomach = ходоодны үрэвсэл, гастрит {гастритом}
    • dyspnea: difficulty breathing = амьсгаадалт {отдышки}
    • gastroenterology: study of stomach and intestines = одоод гэдэсний өвчин судлал
    • polyarthritis: inflammation of many joints = полиартрит
    • osteoarthritis: inflammation of the bone and joints = остеартрит
    Note: Mongolian (and sometimes Russian) translations are provided to help the student learn faster but should not be depended on – better to learn the English-English meaning.

    Pronunciation Practice:
    = inflammation [in·flam·ma·tion]
    = tumor [tu·mor]
    = dermatitis [der·ma·ti·tis]
    = nephrology [ne·phrol·o·gy]
    = cutaneous [cu·ta·ne·ous]
    = nephroma [ne·phro·ma]
    = renal [re·nal]
    = gastritis [gas·tri·tis]
    = dyspnea [dysp·nea]
    = gastroenterology [gas·tro·en·ter·ol·o·gy]
    = polyarthritis [poly·ar·thri·tis]
    = osteoarthritis [os·te·o·ar·thri·tis]


    with exercises

    Previous Lesson
    Where did medical words come from?
    Next Lesson
    Useful Suffixes