Beginner Medical English

A Reference Handbook for Mongolian Students and Healthcare Professionals (DOWNLOAD)

Medical Terminology

ONLINE LESSONS for Healthcare Professionals in Mongolia

Human Anatomy and Physiology

by Dr. Bruce Forciea, 2012 (DOWNLOAD)

Cells: Molecules and Mechanisms

University Cell and Molecular Biology textbook (DOWNLOAD)

Friday, May 25, 2012

Timeline of medicine and medical technology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Timeline of the history of medicine and medical technology.


Middle Ages




Thursday, May 24, 2012

History of Medicine: Introduction

[Part 1 of a series on the History of Medicine]

Hand X-Ray
X-ray of a hand

Human beings have always had beliefs or explanations about birth, death and sickness. People have thought that sickness could have been caused by witches, demons, the stars and the gods. While these beliefs still exist today in some parts of the world, scientific medicine is what most people depend on when they get sick.

The ancient Egyptians had a system of medicine that was very advanced for its time. The Egyptians and Babylonians both introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, and medical examination. The Hippocratic Oath, still taken by doctors today, was written in Greece in the 5th century BC. In the Middle Ages, surgical practices were improved and then systematized in Rogerius's The Practice of Surgery. During the Renaissance, understanding of anatomy improved, and the invention of the microscope would later lead to the germ theory of disease. These advancements, along with developments in chemistry, genetics, and lab technology (such as the x-ray) led to modern medicine.

IMG_3986 crop
Examining a patient's ear through operating microscope.

Hippocratic Oath (Modern version by Dr. Louis Lasagna 1964)
  • I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant:
  • I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow.
  • I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures [that] are required, avoiding those twin traps of over-treatment and therapeutic nihilism.
  • I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon's knife or the chemist's drug.
  • I will not be ashamed to say "I know not", nor will I fail to call in my colleagues when the skills of another are needed for a patient's recovery.
  • I will respect the privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the world may know. Most especially must I tread with care in matters of life and death. If it is given to me to save a life, all thanks. But it may also be within my power to take a life; this awesome responsibility must be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty. Above all, I must not play at God.
  • I will remember that I do not treat a fever chart, a cancerous growth, but a sick human being, whose illness may affect the person's family and economic stability. My responsibility includes these related problems, if I am to care adequately for the sick.
  • I will prevent disease whenever I can, for prevention is preferable to cure.
  • I will remember that I remain a member of society with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as the infirm.
  • If I do not violate this oath, may I enjoy life and art, be respected while I live and remembered with affection thereafter. May I always act so as to preserve the finest traditions of my calling and may I long experience the joy of healing those who seek my help.

Word list:
  • diagnosis = a statement about what disease someone has, based on examining them
  • prognosis = a doctor’s opinion about the way in which a disease or illness is likely to develop
  • nihilism = the belief that nothing in life has any importance or value
  • infirm = people who are weak because of old age or illness

Reference: Wikipedia: History of Medicine

Photo Credits:
Hand x-ray by Trace Meek on
Operating microscope by Mike Blyth on

Tuesday, May 22, 2012

Pronunciation - "ED"

The pronunciation of the -ed endings can sound like [D], like [T], or a separate syllable [ID]

When a word ends in voiceless sound, -ed is pronounced like [T]
  • The sound is made only by the air moving out of the mouth.
When a word ends in voiced sound, -ed is pronounced like [D]
  • The sound is made by the vocal cords down in the throat.
When a word ends in “t” or “d”. -ed is pronounced like [ID]

ID sound
T sound (voiceless)
D sound (voiced)
ending sound
ending sound
ending sound



[no sound]

Friday, May 18, 2012

Free Online Medical Classes

Originally posted on titled: Plan Your Free Online Education at Lifehacker U

This short list of available health-related courses this summer will inspire you, challenge you, open the door to something new, and give you the tools to improve your life.

Science and Medicine
Principles of Human Nutrition at Johns Hopkins University - Professor Benjamin Caballero - Before you sign on with the latest diet craze, take some time to develop an understanding of human nutrition from start to finish. Topics in the course include where to get the essential nutrients for the body to remain healthy, how daily recommended intake levels are calculated, why proper nutrition is so important, and the varying signs of malnutrition, and how diet plays a role in the development of long-term illnesses and other chronic conditions.

BIMM 134: The Biology of Cancer at the University of California, San Diego - Dr. Jean Wang walks through the biological underpinnings of cancer, the various types of cancer, the various treatments and wide array of research being done into even the most specific types of cancer, and why cancer is so tough to beat. The course is distributed as a podcast you can subscribe to, and while some prior knowledge of biology will be extremely helpful, you'll be able to pick up a lot without it.

Sexual Health, HIV/STI, and Human Rights at Johns Hopkins University - Professor Chris Beyrer's course walks through the delicate intersection between human rights, sexual health, sexually transmitted disease, and how public policy and governments around the world attempt to influence all of those conditions. For example, he discusses how global improvements in human rights at home and abroad can make significant inroads to fighting sexually transmitted infections, and how repressive governments and communities may be doing more harm than good by stigmatizing sexual health, education, and medicine.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Alphabet = Цагаан толгой

Alphabet = Цагаан толгой

Aa [эй]
Bb [би]
Cc [си]
Dd [ди]
Ee [ий]
Ff [эф]
Gg [жи]
Hh [эйч]
Ii [ай]
Jj [жэй]
Kk [кэй]
Ll [эл]
Mn [эм]
Nn [эн]
Oo [өү]
Pp [пи]
Qq [кю]
Rr [ар]
Ss [эс]
Tt [ти]
Uu [юу]
Vv [ви]
Ww [даблюу]
Xx [экс]
Yy [вай]
Zz [зи]

Learn to spell your first Medical English words!

Tilly and the Wall perform the "ABC Song"!ABC ROCK By Greg & Steve